Concept

Normal modal logic

Summary
In logic, a normal modal logic is a set L of modal formulas such that L contains:
  • All propositional tautologies;
  • All instances of the Kripke schema: \Box(A\to B)\to(\Box A\to\Box B) and it is closed under:
  • Detachment rule (modus ponens): A\to B, A \in L implies B \in L;
  • Necessitation rule: A \in L implies \Box A \in L.
The smallest logic satisfying the above conditions is called K. Most modal logics commonly used nowadays (in terms of having philosophical motivations), e.g. C. I. Lewis's S4 and S5, are normal (and hence are extensions of K). However a number of deontic and epistemic logics, for example, are non-normal, often because they give up the Kripke schema. Every normal modal logic is regular and hence classical. Common normal modal logics The following table lists several common normal modal systems. The notation refers to the table at Kripke semantics § Common modal axiom schemata. Frame
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