Concept

# Coset

Summary
In mathematics, specifically group theory, a subgroup H of a group G may be used to decompose the underlying set of G into disjoint, equal-size subsets called cosets. There are left cosets and right cosets. Cosets (both left and right) have the same number of elements (cardinality) as does H. Furthermore, H itself is both a left coset and a right coset. The number of left cosets of H in G is equal to the number of right cosets of H in G. This common value is called the index of H in G and is usually denoted by [G : H]. Cosets are a basic tool in the study of groups; for example, they play a central role in Lagrange's theorem that states that for any finite group G, the number of elements of every subgroup H of G divides the number of elements of G. Cosets of a particular type of subgroup (a normal subgroup) can be used as the elements of another group called a quotient group or factor group. Cosets also appear in other areas of mathematics such as vector spaces and error-correcting codes. Let H be a subgroup of the group G whose operation is written multiplicatively (juxtaposition denotes the group operation). Given an element g of G, the left cosets of H in G are the sets obtained by multiplying each element of H by a fixed element g of G (where g is the left factor). In symbols these are, The right cosets are defined similarly, except that the element g is now a right factor, that is, As g varies through the group, it would appear that many cosets (right or left) would be generated. Nevertheless, it turns out that any two left cosets (respectively right cosets) are either disjoint or are identical as sets. If the group operation is written additively, as is often the case when the group is abelian, the notation used changes to g + H or H + g, respectively. Let G be the dihedral group of order six. Its elements may be represented by {I, a, a2, b, ab, a2b}. In this group, a3 = b2 = I and ba = a2b. This is enough information to fill in the entire Cayley table: Let T be the subgroup {I, b}.