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Concept# Exponentiation

Summary

In mathematics, exponentiation is an operation involving two numbers, the base and the exponent or power. Exponentiation is written as bn, where b is the base and n is the power; this is pronounced as "b (raised) to the (power of) n". When n is a positive integer, exponentiation corresponds to repeated multiplication of the base: that is, bn is the product of multiplying n bases:
The exponent is usually shown as a superscript to the right of the base. In that case, bn is called "b raised to the nth power", "b (raised) to the power of n", "the nth power of b", "b to the nth power", or most briefly as "b to the nth".
Starting from the basic fact stated above that, for any positive integer , is occurrences of all multiplied by each other, several other properties of exponentiation directly follow. In particular:
In other words, when multiplying a base raised to one exponent by the same base raised to another exponent, the exponents add. From this basic rule that exponents add, we can derive that must be equal to 1 for any , as follows. For any , . Dividing both sides by gives .
The fact that can similarly be derived from the same rule. For example, . Taking the cube root of both sides gives .
The rule that multiplying makes exponents add can also be used to derive the properties of negative integer exponents. Consider the question of what should mean. In order to respect the "exponents add" rule, it must be the case that . Dividing both sides by gives , which can be more simply written as , using the result from above that . By a similar argument, .
The properties of fractional exponents also follow from the same rule. For example, suppose we consider and ask if there is some suitable exponent, which we may call , such that . From the definition of the square root, we have that . Therefore, the exponent must be such that . Using the fact that multiplying makes exponents add gives . The on the right-hand side can also be written as , giving . Equating the exponents on both sides, we have . Therefore, , so .

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In mathematics, the logarithm is the inverse function to exponentiation. That means that the logarithm of a number x to the base b is the exponent to which b must be raised to produce x. For example, since 1000 = 103, the logarithm base 10 of 1000 is 3, or log10 (1000) = 3. The logarithm of x to base b is denoted as logb (x), or without parentheses, logb x, or even without the explicit base, log x, when no confusion is possible, or when the base does not matter such as in big O notation.

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