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Lecture# Spectral Decomposition of Bounded Self-Adjoint Operators

Description

This lecture covers the spectral decomposition of a self-adjoint operator defined on a separable Hilbert space. By applying functional calculus, the space is decomposed into invariant subspaces. The process involves defining successive subspaces and demonstrating the existence of measures that lead to an isomorphism between the Hilbert space and a space of square-integrable functions. The lecture concludes with the spectral decomposition theorem for bounded self-adjoint operators, which involves a family of measures, an isomorphism mapping, and the multiplication operator. The proof involves expressing elements of the Hilbert space as a sum of components, each associated with a function in the square-integrable space. The lecture also explores the convergence properties and the relationship between the spectral decomposition and diagonalization in finite dimensions.

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In mathematics, a self-adjoint operator on an infinite-dimensional complex vector space V with inner product (equivalently, a Hermitian operator in the finite-dimensional case) is a linear map A (from V to itself) that is its own adjoint. If V is finite-dimensional with a given orthonormal basis, this is equivalent to the condition that the matrix of A is a Hermitian matrix, i.e., equal to its conjugate transpose A^∗. By the finite-dimensional spectral theorem, V has an orthonormal basis such that the matrix of A relative to this basis is a diagonal matrix with entries in the real numbers.

In mathematics, more specifically functional analysis and operator theory, the notion of unbounded operator provides an abstract framework for dealing with differential operators, unbounded observables in quantum mechanics, and other cases. The term "unbounded operator" can be misleading, since "unbounded" should sometimes be understood as "not necessarily bounded"; "operator" should be understood as "linear operator" (as in the case of "bounded operator"); the domain of the operator is a linear subspace, not necessarily the whole space; this linear subspace is not necessarily closed; often (but not always) it is assumed to be dense; in the special case of a bounded operator, still, the domain is usually assumed to be the whole space.

In the mathematical discipline of linear algebra, a matrix decomposition or matrix factorization is a factorization of a matrix into a product of matrices. There are many different matrix decompositions; each finds use among a particular class of problems. In numerical analysis, different decompositions are used to implement efficient matrix algorithms. For instance, when solving a system of linear equations , the matrix A can be decomposed via the LU decomposition.

In linear algebra, the singular value decomposition (SVD) is a factorization of a real or complex matrix. It generalizes the eigendecomposition of a square normal matrix with an orthonormal eigenbasis to any matrix. It is related to the polar decomposition. Specifically, the singular value decomposition of an complex matrix M is a factorization of the form where U is an complex unitary matrix, is an rectangular diagonal matrix with non-negative real numbers on the diagonal, V is an complex unitary matrix, and is the conjugate transpose of V.

In linear algebra, a QR decomposition, also known as a QR factorization or QU factorization, is a decomposition of a matrix A into a product A = QR of an orthonormal matrix Q and an upper triangular matrix R. QR decomposition is often used to solve the linear least squares problem and is the basis for a particular eigenvalue algorithm, the QR algorithm. Any real square matrix A may be decomposed as where Q is an orthogonal matrix (its columns are orthogonal unit vectors meaning ) and R is an upper triangular matrix (also called right triangular matrix).