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Lecture# Astrophysical Fluids & Plasmas

Description

This lecture covers the composition of the cosmos, including dark matter and dark energy, and the dynamics of astrophysical fluids and plasmas. It delves into the structure of the universe, the recombination time, and the continuum model. The presentation progresses to the modelling of fluids and plasmas, from quantum particles to classical particles, and the transition to equilibrium solutions. The lecture concludes with discussions on the conservation equations, moments of the conservation equation, and the conservation of mass, momentum, and energy.

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In physics, a conservation law states that a particular measurable property of an isolated physical system does not change as the system evolves over time. Exact conservation laws include conservation of mass-energy, conservation of linear momentum, conservation of angular momentum, and conservation of electric charge. There are also many approximate conservation laws, which apply to such quantities as mass, parity, lepton number, baryon number, strangeness, hypercharge, etc.

Dark matter

Dark matter is a hypothetical form of matter thought to account for approximately 85% of the matter in the universe. Dark matter is called "dark" because it does not appear to interact with the electromagnetic field, which means it does not absorb, reflect, or emit electromagnetic radiation and is, therefore, difficult to detect. Various astrophysical observations - including gravitational effects which cannot be explained by currently accepted theories of gravity unless more matter is present than can be seen - imply dark matter's presence.

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In physics, a subatomic particle is a particle smaller than an atom. According to the Standard Model of particle physics, a subatomic particle can be either a composite particle, which is composed of other particles (for example, a proton, neutron, or meson), or an elementary particle, which is not composed of other particles (for example, an electron, photon, or muon). Particle physics and nuclear physics study these particles and how they interact.

Elementary particle

In particle physics, an elementary particle or fundamental particle is a subatomic particle that is not composed of other particles. The Standard Model presently recognizes seventeen distinct particles, twelve fermions and five bosons. As a consequence of flavor and color combinations and antimatter, the fermions and bosons are known to have 48 and 13 variations, respectively. Among the 61 elementary particles embraced by the Standard Model number electrons and other leptons, quarks, and the fundamental bosons.

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