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Lecture# From embedded to general manifolds: Why?

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This lecture explores the concept of upgrading foundations from embedded to general manifolds, focusing on optimization on manifolds. The instructor discusses smooth sets that are not explicitly embedded, giving examples from optimization with symmetries. Additionally, the lecture covers the definition of smooth functions, tangent vectors, and smooth sets.

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Related concepts (80)

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Differentiable manifold

In mathematics, a differentiable manifold (also differential manifold) is a type of manifold that is locally similar enough to a vector space to allow one to apply calculus. Any manifold can be described by a collection of charts (atlas). One may then apply ideas from calculus while working within the individual charts, since each chart lies within a vector space to which the usual rules of calculus apply. If the charts are suitably compatible (namely, the transition from one chart to another is differentiable), then computations done in one chart are valid in any other differentiable chart.

Smooth structure

In mathematics, a smooth structure on a manifold allows for an unambiguous notion of smooth function. In particular, a smooth structure allows one to perform mathematical analysis on the manifold. A smooth structure on a manifold is a collection of smoothly equivalent smooth atlases. Here, a smooth atlas for a topological manifold is an atlas for such that each transition function is a smooth map, and two smooth atlases for are smoothly equivalent provided their union is again a smooth atlas for This gives a natural equivalence relation on the set of smooth atlases.

Smooth scheme

In algebraic geometry, a smooth scheme over a field is a scheme which is well approximated by affine space near any point. Smoothness is one way of making precise the notion of a scheme with no singular points. A special case is the notion of a smooth variety over a field. Smooth schemes play the role in algebraic geometry of manifolds in topology. First, let X be an affine scheme of finite type over a field k. Equivalently, X has a closed immersion into affine space An over k for some natural number n.

Disjoint sets

In mathematics, two sets are said to be disjoint sets if they have no element in common. Equivalently, two disjoint sets are sets whose intersection is the empty set. For example, {1, 2, 3} and {4, 5, 6} are disjoint sets, while {1, 2, 3} and {3, 4, 5} are not disjoint. A collection of two or more sets is called disjoint if any two distinct sets of the collection are disjoint. This definition of disjoint sets can be extended to families of sets and to indexed families of sets.

Tangent vector

In mathematics, a tangent vector is a vector that is tangent to a curve or surface at a given point. Tangent vectors are described in the differential geometry of curves in the context of curves in Rn. More generally, tangent vectors are elements of a tangent space of a differentiable manifold. Tangent vectors can also be described in terms of germs. Formally, a tangent vector at the point is a linear derivation of the algebra defined by the set of germs at .

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