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Lecture# Hamiltonian Mechanics: Diatomic Molecules

Description

This lecture covers the application of Hamiltonian mechanics in polar coordinates, focusing on diatomic molecules after removing the center-of-mass motion. It discusses the Lagrange equations, conservation of energy, and the Hamiltonian for diatomic molecules. The instructor explains the concepts of canonical momentum, angular momentum, and the centrifugal force. The lecture also delves into the derivation of equations of motion from the principle of least action and the vibrational and rotational motion of molecules.

Official source

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Instructor

In course

CH-453: Molecular quantum dynamics

The course covers several exact, approximate, and numerical methods to solve the time-dependent molecular Schrödinger equation, and applications including calculations of molecular electronic spectra.

Related concepts (155)

Equations of motion

In physics, equations of motion are equations that describe the behavior of a physical system in terms of its motion as a function of time. More specifically, the equations of motion describe the behavior of a physical system as a set of mathematical functions in terms of dynamic variables. These variables are usually spatial coordinates and time, but may include momentum components. The most general choice are generalized coordinates which can be any convenient variables characteristic of the physical system.

Angular momentum

In physics, angular momentum (sometimes called moment of momentum or rotational momentum) is the rotational analog of linear momentum. It is an important physical quantity because it is a conserved quantity – the total angular momentum of a closed system remains constant. Angular momentum has both a direction and a magnitude, and both are conserved. Bicycles and motorcycles, flying discs, rifled bullets, and gyroscopes owe their useful properties to conservation of angular momentum.

Rotation

Rotation or rotational motion is the circular movement of an object around a central line, known as axis of rotation. A plane figure can rotate in either a clockwise or counterclockwise sense around a perpendicular axis intersecting anywhere inside or outside the figure at a center of rotation. A solid figure has an infinite number of possible axes and angles of rotation, including chaotic rotation (between arbitrary orientations), in contrast to rotation around a axis.

Hamiltonian mechanics

Hamiltonian mechanics emerged in 1833 as a reformulation of Lagrangian mechanics. Introduced by Sir William Rowan Hamilton, Hamiltonian mechanics replaces (generalized) velocities used in Lagrangian mechanics with (generalized) momenta. Both theories provide interpretations of classical mechanics and describe the same physical phenomena. Hamiltonian mechanics has a close relationship with geometry (notably, symplectic geometry and Poisson structures) and serves as a link between classical and quantum mechanics.

Rotation around a fixed axis

Rotation around a fixed axis or axial rotation is a special case of rotational motion around a axis of rotation fixed, stationary, or static in three-dimensional space. This type of motion excludes the possibility of the instantaneous axis of rotation changing its orientation and cannot describe such phenomena as wobbling or precession. According to Euler's rotation theorem, simultaneous rotation along a number of stationary axes at the same time is impossible; if two rotations are forced at the same time, a new axis of rotation will result.

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