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Lecture# Finding Orthogonal/Orthonormal Base: First Step

Description

This lecture covers the first step in finding an orthogonal/orthonormal base in a vector space with a scalar product, focusing on the properties of orthogonal families of vectors and the orthogonal projection of one vector onto another. The lecture also introduces the concept of projection orthogonale and its properties, providing a detailed explanation of the formulas involved. Additionally, it discusses the projection of a vector onto a subspace and its relation to the scalar product. The instructor demonstrates the application of these concepts through various propositions and proofs, emphasizing the importance of understanding orthogonal bases in linear algebra.

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In MOOCs (9)

Instructor

Algebra (part 1)

Un MOOC francophone d'algèbre linéaire accessible à tous, enseigné de manière rigoureuse et ne nécessitant aucun prérequis.

Algebra (part 1)

Un MOOC francophone d'algèbre linéaire accessible à tous, enseigné de manière rigoureuse et ne nécessitant aucun prérequis.

Algebra (part 2)

Un MOOC francophone d'algèbre linéaire accessible à tous, enseigné de manière rigoureuse et ne nécessitant aucun prérequis.

Algebra (part 2)Un MOOC francophone d'algèbre linéaire accessible à tous, enseigné de manière rigoureuse et ne nécessitant aucun prérequis.

Algebra (part 3)Un MOOC francophone d'algèbre linéaire accessible à tous, enseigné de manière rigoureuse et ne nécessitant aucun prérequis.

Related concepts (58)

Orthogonal basis

In mathematics, particularly linear algebra, an orthogonal basis for an inner product space is a basis for whose vectors are mutually orthogonal. If the vectors of an orthogonal basis are normalized, the resulting basis is an orthonormal basis. Any orthogonal basis can be used to define a system of orthogonal coordinates Orthogonal (not necessarily orthonormal) bases are important due to their appearance from curvilinear orthogonal coordinates in Euclidean spaces, as well as in Riemannian and pseudo-Riemannian manifolds.

Standard basis

In mathematics, the standard basis (also called natural basis or canonical basis) of a coordinate vector space (such as or ) is the set of vectors, each of whose components are all zero, except one that equals 1. For example, in the case of the Euclidean plane formed by the pairs (x, y) of real numbers, the standard basis is formed by the vectors Similarly, the standard basis for the three-dimensional space is formed by vectors Here the vector ex points in the x direction, the vector ey points in the y direction, and the vector ez points in the z direction.

Orthonormal basis

In mathematics, particularly linear algebra, an orthonormal basis for an inner product space V with finite dimension is a basis for whose vectors are orthonormal, that is, they are all unit vectors and orthogonal to each other. For example, the standard basis for a Euclidean space is an orthonormal basis, where the relevant inner product is the dot product of vectors. The of the standard basis under a rotation or reflection (or any orthogonal transformation) is also orthonormal, and every orthonormal basis for arises in this fashion.

Orthogonal transformation

In linear algebra, an orthogonal transformation is a linear transformation T : V → V on a real inner product space V, that preserves the inner product. That is, for each pair u, v of elements of V, we have Since the lengths of vectors and the angles between them are defined through the inner product, orthogonal transformations preserve lengths of vectors and angles between them. In particular, orthogonal transformations map orthonormal bases to orthonormal bases. Orthogonal transformations are injective: if then , hence , so the kernel of is trivial.

Inner product space

In mathematics, an inner product space (or, rarely, a Hausdorff pre-Hilbert space) is a real vector space or a complex vector space with an operation called an inner product. The inner product of two vectors in the space is a scalar, often denoted with angle brackets such as in . Inner products allow formal definitions of intuitive geometric notions, such as lengths, angles, and orthogonality (zero inner product) of vectors. Inner product spaces generalize Euclidean vector spaces, in which the inner product is the dot product or scalar product of Cartesian coordinates.

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Linear Algebra: Orthogonal ProjectionsMATH-111(a): Linear Algebra

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Covers the concept of orthogonal families, projections, and orthonormal bases in vector spaces.