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Lecture# Orthogonal Families and Projections

Description

This lecture covers the concept of orthogonal families, projections, and orthonormal bases in vector spaces. It explains the properties of orthogonal and orthonormal families, their applications in projections, and the conditions for a set of vectors to be orthonormal. The lecture also discusses the use of orthogonal bases in calculating projections and the generalization of projections in vector spaces.

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Related concepts (109)

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MATH-111(c): Linear Algebra

L'objectif du cours est d'introduire les notions de base de l'algèbre linéaire et ses applications.

Vector space

In mathematics and physics, a vector space (also called a linear space) is a set whose elements, often called vectors, may be added together and multiplied ("scaled") by numbers called scalars. Scalars are often real numbers, but can be complex numbers or, more generally, elements of any field. The operations of vector addition and scalar multiplication must satisfy certain requirements, called vector axioms. The terms real vector space and complex vector space are often used to specify the nature of the scalars: real coordinate space or complex coordinate space.

Linear algebra

Linear algebra is the branch of mathematics concerning linear equations such as: linear maps such as: and their representations in vector spaces and through matrices. Linear algebra is central to almost all areas of mathematics. For instance, linear algebra is fundamental in modern presentations of geometry, including for defining basic objects such as lines, planes and rotations. Also, functional analysis, a branch of mathematical analysis, may be viewed as the application of linear algebra to spaces of functions.

Orthonormal basis

In mathematics, particularly linear algebra, an orthonormal basis for an inner product space V with finite dimension is a basis for whose vectors are orthonormal, that is, they are all unit vectors and orthogonal to each other. For example, the standard basis for a Euclidean space is an orthonormal basis, where the relevant inner product is the dot product of vectors. The of the standard basis under a rotation or reflection (or any orthogonal transformation) is also orthonormal, and every orthonormal basis for arises in this fashion.

Normed vector space

In mathematics, a normed vector space or normed space is a vector space over the real or complex numbers on which a norm is defined. A norm is a generalization of the intuitive notion of "length" in the physical world. If is a vector space over , where is a field equal to or to , then a norm on is a map , typically denoted by , satisfying the following four axioms: Non-negativity: for every ,. Positive definiteness: for every , if and only if is the zero vector.

Hilbert space

In mathematics, Hilbert spaces (named after David Hilbert) allow the methods of linear algebra and calculus to be generalized from (finite-dimensional) Euclidean vector spaces to spaces that may be infinite-dimensional. Hilbert spaces arise naturally and frequently in mathematics and physics, typically as function spaces. Formally, a Hilbert space is a vector space equipped with an inner product that induces a distance function for which the space is a complete metric space.

Explores orthogonal complement and projection theorems in vector spaces.

Covers orthogonality, scalar products, orthogonal bases, and vector projection in detail.

Covers scalar products, orthogonal vectors, norms, and projections in vector spaces, emphasizing orthonormal families of vectors.

Explores orthogonality between vectors and subspaces, demonstrating practical implications in matrix operations.

Covers the theorems related to orthogonal projection and orthonormal bases.