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Lecture# Linear Equations: Matrix Notation & Solutions

Description

This lecture introduces matrix-vector product notation for expressing linear combinations efficiently. It covers rewriting systems of linear equations in matrix form, the augmented matrix, and the concept of spanning columns. The instructor demonstrates how to solve homogeneous systems of equations, showing that they always have at least one solution. The lecture also explores the geometric interpretation of solutions, such as lines and planes in higher dimensions. Additionally, it delves into the properties of matrices, including distributivity, and the equivalence of different statements regarding matrices. The concept of free variables and the parametric representation of solutions are illustrated through examples, highlighting the connection between matrices, vectors, and solutions.

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Related concepts (157)

MATH-111(e): Linear Algebra

L'objectif du cours est d'introduire les notions de base de l'algèbre linéaire et ses applications.

Matrix multiplication

In mathematics, particularly in linear algebra, matrix multiplication is a binary operation that produces a matrix from two matrices. For matrix multiplication, the number of columns in the first matrix must be equal to the number of rows in the second matrix. The resulting matrix, known as the matrix product, has the number of rows of the first and the number of columns of the second matrix. The product of matrices A and B is denoted as AB.

Diagonal matrix

In linear algebra, a diagonal matrix is a matrix in which the entries outside the main diagonal are all zero; the term usually refers to square matrices. Elements of the main diagonal can either be zero or nonzero. An example of a 2×2 diagonal matrix is , while an example of a 3×3 diagonal matrix is. An identity matrix of any size, or any multiple of it (a scalar matrix), is a diagonal matrix. A diagonal matrix is sometimes called a scaling matrix, since matrix multiplication with it results in changing scale (size).

Matrix exponential

In mathematics, the matrix exponential is a matrix function on square matrices analogous to the ordinary exponential function. It is used to solve systems of linear differential equations. In the theory of Lie groups, the matrix exponential gives the exponential map between a matrix Lie algebra and the corresponding Lie group. Let X be an n×n real or complex matrix. The exponential of X, denoted by eX or exp(X), is the n×n matrix given by the power series where is defined to be the identity matrix with the same dimensions as .

Matrix decomposition

In the mathematical discipline of linear algebra, a matrix decomposition or matrix factorization is a factorization of a matrix into a product of matrices. There are many different matrix decompositions; each finds use among a particular class of problems. In numerical analysis, different decompositions are used to implement efficient matrix algorithms. For instance, when solving a system of linear equations , the matrix A can be decomposed via the LU decomposition.

Invertible matrix

In linear algebra, an n-by-n square matrix A is called invertible (also nonsingular, nondegenerate or (rarely used) regular), if there exists an n-by-n square matrix B such that where In denotes the n-by-n identity matrix and the multiplication used is ordinary matrix multiplication. If this is the case, then the matrix B is uniquely determined by A, and is called the (multiplicative) inverse of A, denoted by A−1. Matrix inversion is the process of finding the matrix B that satisfies the prior equation for a given invertible matrix A.

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