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Lecture# Jordan decomposition: Lie algebra

Description

This lecture explores the Jordan decomposition in the context of Lie algebras, focusing on the concepts of semi-simple and unipotent elements. The instructor explains how every semi-simple element in the Lie algebra of a linear algebraic group is contained in a torus, while unipotent elements are contained in a unipotent subgroup. The lecture also covers the uniqueness of the Jordan decomposition, showing that every element in the Lie algebra of a linear algebraic group has a unique decomposition into semi-simple and unipotent parts. The proof involves constructing subgroups and analyzing commutativity to demonstrate the containment of the decomposition components in the Lie algebra of the group.

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In course

MATH-479: Linear algebraic groups

The aim of the course is to give an introduction to linear algebraic groups and to give an insight into a beautiful subject that combines algebraic geometry with group theory.

Related concepts (32)

Related lectures (33)

Linear algebraic group

In mathematics, a linear algebraic group is a subgroup of the group of invertible matrices (under matrix multiplication) that is defined by polynomial equations. An example is the orthogonal group, defined by the relation where is the transpose of . Many Lie groups can be viewed as linear algebraic groups over the field of real or complex numbers. (For example, every compact Lie group can be regarded as a linear algebraic group over R (necessarily R-anisotropic and reductive), as can many noncompact groups such as the simple Lie group SL(n,R).

Algebraic group

In mathematics, an algebraic group is an algebraic variety endowed with a group structure that is compatible with its structure as an algebraic variety. Thus the study of algebraic groups belongs both to algebraic geometry and group theory. Many groups of geometric transformations are algebraic groups; for example, orthogonal groups, general linear groups, projective groups, Euclidean groups, etc. Many matrix groups are also algebraic. Other algebraic groups occur naturally in algebraic geometry, such as elliptic curves and Jacobian varieties.

Unipotent

In mathematics, a unipotent element r of a ring R is one such that r − 1 is a nilpotent element; in other words, (r − 1)n is zero for some n. In particular, a square matrix M is a unipotent matrix if and only if its characteristic polynomial P(t) is a power of t − 1. Thus all the eigenvalues of a unipotent matrix are 1. The term quasi-unipotent means that some power is unipotent, for example for a diagonalizable matrix with eigenvalues that are all roots of unity.

LU decomposition

In numerical analysis and linear algebra, lower–upper (LU) decomposition or factorization factors a matrix as the product of a lower triangular matrix and an upper triangular matrix (see matrix decomposition). The product sometimes includes a permutation matrix as well. LU decomposition can be viewed as the matrix form of Gaussian elimination. Computers usually solve square systems of linear equations using LU decomposition, and it is also a key step when inverting a matrix or computing the determinant of a matrix.

Subgroup

In group theory, a branch of mathematics, given a group G under a binary operation ∗, a subset H of G is called a subgroup of G if H also forms a group under the operation ∗. More precisely, H is a subgroup of G if the restriction of ∗ to H × H is a group operation on H. This is often denoted H ≤ G, read as "H is a subgroup of G". The trivial subgroup of any group is the subgroup {e} consisting of just the identity element. A proper subgroup of a group G is a subgroup H which is a proper subset of G (that is, H ≠ G).

Connected ComponentsMATH-479: Linear algebraic groups

Covers the concept of connected components in linear algebraic groups and their relationship to singular groups.

Subgroups and subalgebrasMATH-479: Linear algebraic groups

Explores the unique determination of homomorphisms by differentials and the intersection of closed subgroups' Lie algebras.

Diagonalizable GroupsMATH-479: Linear algebraic groups

Explores the concept of diagonalizable groups and their properties in linear algebraic groups.

Commutative algebraic groupsMATH-479: Linear algebraic groups

Covers the properties of commutative linear algebraic groups and their elements.

Finite Abelian GroupsMATH-310: Algebra

Covers Cauchy's theorem, classification of finite abelian groups, direct product properties, and more.