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Lecture# Surfaces with Constant Curvature

Description

This lecture covers the analysis of surfaces with variable curvature, focusing on surfaces with constant curvature. It explains the importance of the minimal oriented radius of curvature in machining processes and the significance of concave over convex curvatures. The lecture delves into the properties of surfaces with zero Gaussian curvature and their representation as discs. It also explores the concept of pseudo-spheres and compares their properties with spheres. The presentation includes detailed explanations and visualizations of tractricoids and catenoids, highlighting their unique properties and mathematical formulations.

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Related concepts (141)

MATH-126: Geometry for architects II

Ce cours traite des 3 sujets suivants : la perspective, la géométrie descriptive, et une initiation à la géométrie projective.

Curvature

In mathematics, curvature is any of several strongly related concepts in geometry. Intuitively, the curvature is the amount by which a curve deviates from being a straight line, or a surface deviates from being a plane. For curves, the canonical example is that of a circle, which has a curvature equal to the reciprocal of its radius. Smaller circles bend more sharply, and hence have higher curvature. The curvature at a point of a differentiable curve is the curvature of its osculating circle, that is the circle that best approximates the curve near this point.

Geodesics on an ellipsoid

The study of geodesics on an ellipsoid arose in connection with geodesy specifically with the solution of triangulation networks. The figure of the Earth is well approximated by an oblate ellipsoid, a slightly flattened sphere. A geodesic is the shortest path between two points on a curved surface, analogous to a straight line on a plane surface. The solution of a triangulation network on an ellipsoid is therefore a set of exercises in spheroidal trigonometry .

Circle

A circle is a shape consisting of all points in a plane that are at a given distance from a given point, the centre. The distance between any point of the circle and the centre is called the radius. Usually, the radius is required to be a positive number. A circle with (a single point) is a degenerate case. This article is about circles in Euclidean geometry, and, in particular, the Euclidean plane, except where otherwise noted. Specifically, a circle is a simple closed curve that divides the plane into two regions: an interior and an exterior.

Geodesic

In geometry, a geodesic (ˌdʒiː.əˈdɛsɪk,*-oʊ-,*-ˈdiːsɪk,_-zɪk) is a curve representing in some sense the shortest path (arc) between two points in a surface, or more generally in a Riemannian manifold. The term also has meaning in any differentiable manifold with a connection. It is a generalization of the notion of a "straight line". The noun geodesic and the adjective geodetic come from geodesy, the science of measuring the size and shape of Earth, though many of the underlying principles can be applied to any ellipsoidal geometry.

Differential geometry of surfaces

In mathematics, the differential geometry of surfaces deals with the differential geometry of smooth surfaces with various additional structures, most often, a Riemannian metric. Surfaces have been extensively studied from various perspectives: extrinsically, relating to their embedding in Euclidean space and intrinsically, reflecting their properties determined solely by the distance within the surface as measured along curves on the surface.

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