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Lecture# Properties of Euclidean Domains

Description

This lecture covers the properties of Euclidean domains, including the greatest common divisor, least common multiple, and the Chinese remainder theorem for polynomial rings. It explains when an ideal is maximal in a principal ideal domain (PID) and when a quotient ring of a Euclidean domain becomes a field. The lecture also discusses irreducible elements in polynomial rings and provides examples and proofs related to these concepts.

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MATH-310: Algebra

Study basic concepts of modern algebra: groups, rings, fields.

Principal ideal ring

In mathematics, a principal right (left) ideal ring is a ring R in which every right (left) ideal is of the form xR (Rx) for some element x of R. (The right and left ideals of this form, generated by one element, are called principal ideals.) When this is satisfied for both left and right ideals, such as the case when R is a commutative ring, R can be called a principal ideal ring, or simply principal ring. If only the finitely generated right ideals of R are principal, then R is called a right Bézout ring.

Principal ideal domain

In mathematics, a principal ideal domain, or PID, is an integral domain in which every ideal is principal, i.e., can be generated by a single element. More generally, a principal ideal ring is a nonzero commutative ring whose ideals are principal, although some authors (e.g., Bourbaki) refer to PIDs as principal rings. The distinction is that a principal ideal ring may have zero divisors whereas a principal ideal domain cannot.

Commutative ring

In mathematics, a commutative ring is a ring in which the multiplication operation is commutative. The study of commutative rings is called commutative algebra. Complementarily, noncommutative algebra is the study of ring properties that are not specific to commutative rings. This distinction results from the high number of fundamental properties of commutative rings that do not extend to noncommutative rings. A ring is a set equipped with two binary operations, i.e. operations combining any two elements of the ring to a third.

Quotient ring

In ring theory, a branch of abstract algebra, a quotient ring, also known as factor ring, difference ring or residue class ring, is a construction quite similar to the quotient group in group theory and to the quotient space in linear algebra. It is a specific example of a quotient, as viewed from the general setting of universal algebra. Starting with a ring R and a two-sided ideal I in R, a new ring, the quotient ring R / I, is constructed, whose elements are the cosets of I in R subject to special + and ⋅ operations.

Greatest common divisor

In mathematics, the greatest common divisor (GCD) of two or more integers, which are not all zero, is the largest positive integer that divides each of the integers. For two integers x, y, the greatest common divisor of x and y is denoted . For example, the GCD of 8 and 12 is 4, that is, . In the name "greatest common divisor", the adjective "greatest" may be replaced by "highest", and the word "divisor" may be replaced by "factor", so that other names include highest common factor (hcf), etc.

Explores the construction and properties of finite fields, including irreducible polynomials and the Chinese Remainder Theorem.

Covers the properties of Euclidean domains and irreducible elements in polynomial rings.

Covers principal ideals, ring homomorphisms, and more in commutative rings and fields.