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Lecture# Orthogonal Matrices and Triangular Matrices

Description

This lecture covers the properties of orthogonal matrices and triangular matrices, focusing on matrices of size nxn with linearly independent columns. The instructor explains the relationship between Q and R matrices, where QTQ=I and B=RQ. Various mathematical operations involving these matrices are discussed, such as BQT-RQQT and QBQT=RQ. The lecture also touches on the concept of similarity between matrices A and B, and finding eigenvalues of matrices using determinants and characteristic polynomials.

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Related concepts (39)

Commuting matrices

In linear algebra, two matrices and are said to commute if , or equivalently if their commutator is zero. A set of matrices is said to commute if they commute pairwise, meaning that every pair of matrices in the set commute with each other. Commuting matrices preserve each other's eigenspaces. As a consequence, commuting matrices over an algebraically closed field are simultaneously triangularizable; that is, there are bases over which they are both upper triangular.

Triangular matrix

In mathematics, a triangular matrix is a special kind of square matrix. A square matrix is called if all the entries above the main diagonal are zero. Similarly, a square matrix is called if all the entries below the main diagonal are zero. Because matrix equations with triangular matrices are easier to solve, they are very important in numerical analysis. By the LU decomposition algorithm, an invertible matrix may be written as the product of a lower triangular matrix L and an upper triangular matrix U if and only if all its leading principal minors are non-zero.

Eigenvalues and eigenvectors

In linear algebra, an eigenvector (ˈaɪgənˌvɛktər) or characteristic vector of a linear transformation is a nonzero vector that changes at most by a constant factor when that linear transformation is applied to it. The corresponding eigenvalue, often represented by , is the multiplying factor. Geometrically, a transformation matrix rotates, stretches, or shears the vectors it acts upon. The eigenvectors for a linear transformation matrix are the set of vectors that are only stretched, with no rotation or shear.

Determinant

In mathematics, the determinant is a scalar value that is a function of the entries of a square matrix. It characterizes some properties of the matrix and the linear map represented by the matrix. In particular, the determinant is nonzero if and only if the matrix is invertible and the linear map represented by the matrix is an isomorphism. The determinant of a product of matrices is the product of their determinants (the preceding property is a corollary of this one). The determinant of a matrix A is denoted det(A), det A, or .

Linear independence

In the theory of vector spaces, a set of vectors is said to be if there exists no nontrivial linear combination of the vectors that equals the zero vector. If such a linear combination exists, then the vectors are said to be . These concepts are central to the definition of dimension. A vector space can be of finite dimension or infinite dimension depending on the maximum number of linearly independent vectors. The definition of linear dependence and the ability to determine whether a subset of vectors in a vector space is linearly dependent are central to determining the dimension of a vector space.

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