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Lecture# Matrix Diagonalization: Spectral Theorem

Description

This lecture covers the process of diagonalizing matrices, focusing on symmetric matrices. It explains the spectral theorem, eigenvalues, eigenvectors, and the decomposition of symmetric matrices. The lecture also discusses the conditions for diagonalizability and the importance of orthonormal bases.

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Related concepts (197)

Singular value decomposition

In linear algebra, the singular value decomposition (SVD) is a factorization of a real or complex matrix. It generalizes the eigendecomposition of a square normal matrix with an orthonormal eigenbasis to any matrix. It is related to the polar decomposition. Specifically, the singular value decomposition of an complex matrix M is a factorization of the form where U is an complex unitary matrix, is an rectangular diagonal matrix with non-negative real numbers on the diagonal, V is an complex unitary matrix, and is the conjugate transpose of V.

Elementary symmetric polynomial

In mathematics, specifically in commutative algebra, the elementary symmetric polynomials are one type of basic building block for symmetric polynomials, in the sense that any symmetric polynomial can be expressed as a polynomial in elementary symmetric polynomials. That is, any symmetric polynomial P is given by an expression involving only additions and multiplication of constants and elementary symmetric polynomials.

Symmetric polynomial

In mathematics, a symmetric polynomial is a polynomial P(X1, X2, ..., Xn) in n variables, such that if any of the variables are interchanged, one obtains the same polynomial. Formally, P is a symmetric polynomial if for any permutation σ of the subscripts 1, 2, ..., n one has P(Xσ(1), Xσ(2), ..., Xσ(n)) = P(X1, X2, ..., Xn). Symmetric polynomials arise naturally in the study of the relation between the roots of a polynomial in one variable and its coefficients, since the coefficients can be given by polynomial expressions in the roots, and all roots play a similar role in this setting.

Eigenvalues and eigenvectors

In linear algebra, an eigenvector (ˈaɪgənˌvɛktər) or characteristic vector of a linear transformation is a nonzero vector that changes at most by a constant factor when that linear transformation is applied to it. The corresponding eigenvalue, often represented by , is the multiplying factor. Geometrically, a transformation matrix rotates, stretches, or shears the vectors it acts upon. The eigenvectors for a linear transformation matrix are the set of vectors that are only stretched, with no rotation or shear.

Ring of symmetric functions

In algebra and in particular in algebraic combinatorics, the ring of symmetric functions is a specific limit of the rings of symmetric polynomials in n indeterminates, as n goes to infinity. This ring serves as universal structure in which relations between symmetric polynomials can be expressed in a way independent of the number n of indeterminates (but its elements are neither polynomials nor functions). Among other things, this ring plays an important role in the representation theory of the symmetric group.

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