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Lecture# Decomposition Spectral: Symmetric Matrices

Description

This lecture covers the decomposition of symmetric matrices into eigenvalues and eigenvectors, leading to the spectral theorem. It explains how a symmetric matrix can be diagonalized orthogonally using an orthogonal matrix P, resulting in a diagonal matrix D. The lecture also discusses the properties of eigenvalues, eigenvectors, and the orthogonality of the eigenspaces.

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Related concepts (138)

Matrix (mathematics)

In mathematics, a matrix (plural matrices) is a rectangular array or table of numbers, symbols, or expressions, arranged in rows and columns, which is used to represent a mathematical object or a property of such an object. For example, is a matrix with two rows and three columns. This is often referred to as a "two by three matrix", a " matrix", or a matrix of dimension . Without further specifications, matrices represent linear maps, and allow explicit computations in linear algebra.

Rotation matrix

In linear algebra, a rotation matrix is a transformation matrix that is used to perform a rotation in Euclidean space. For example, using the convention below, the matrix rotates points in the xy plane counterclockwise through an angle θ about the origin of a two-dimensional Cartesian coordinate system. To perform the rotation on a plane point with standard coordinates v = (x, y), it should be written as a column vector, and multiplied by the matrix R: If x and y are the endpoint coordinates of a vector, where x is cosine and y is sine, then the above equations become the trigonometric summation angle formulae.

Transpose

In linear algebra, the transpose of a matrix is an operator which flips a matrix over its diagonal; that is, it switches the row and column indices of the matrix A by producing another matrix, often denoted by AT (among other notations). The transpose of a matrix was introduced in 1858 by the British mathematician Arthur Cayley. In the case of a logical matrix representing a binary relation R, the transpose corresponds to the converse relation RT.

Singular value decomposition

In linear algebra, the singular value decomposition (SVD) is a factorization of a real or complex matrix. It generalizes the eigendecomposition of a square normal matrix with an orthonormal eigenbasis to any matrix. It is related to the polar decomposition. Specifically, the singular value decomposition of an complex matrix M is a factorization of the form where U is an complex unitary matrix, is an rectangular diagonal matrix with non-negative real numbers on the diagonal, V is an complex unitary matrix, and is the conjugate transpose of V.

Matrix multiplication

In mathematics, particularly in linear algebra, matrix multiplication is a binary operation that produces a matrix from two matrices. For matrix multiplication, the number of columns in the first matrix must be equal to the number of rows in the second matrix. The resulting matrix, known as the matrix product, has the number of rows of the first and the number of columns of the second matrix. The product of matrices A and B is denoted as AB.

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