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Lecture# Polynomial Approximation: Orthonormal Basis and Projection

Description

This lecture covers the concept of polynomial approximation using orthonormal bases and orthogonal projection. It starts with building an orthonormal basis from a naive basis, then introduces the Gram-Schmidt orthonormalization procedure. The lecture also discusses Legendre polynomials and demonstrates orthogonal projection over a specific interval. Finally, it compares the error of the approximation using orthogonal projection with Taylor's series.

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In MOOCs (4)

Instructors (3)

Related concepts (41)

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Legendre polynomials

In mathematics, Legendre polynomials, named after Adrien-Marie Legendre (1782), are a system of complete and orthogonal polynomials with a vast number of mathematical properties and numerous applications. They can be defined in many ways, and the various definitions highlight different aspects as well as suggest generalizations and connections to different mathematical structures and physical and numerical applications. Closely related to the Legendre polynomials are associated Legendre polynomials, Legendre functions, Legendre functions of the second kind, and associated Legendre functions.

Gegenbauer polynomials

In mathematics, Gegenbauer polynomials or ultraspherical polynomials C(x) are orthogonal polynomials on the interval [−1,1] with respect to the weight function (1 − x2)α–1/2. They generalize Legendre polynomials and Chebyshev polynomials, and are special cases of Jacobi polynomials. They are named after Leopold Gegenbauer. File:Plot of the Gegenbauer polynomial C n^(m)(x) with n=10 and m=1 in the complex plane from -2-2i to 2+2i with colors created with Mathematica 13.1 function ComplexPlot3D.

Associated Legendre polynomials

In mathematics, the associated Legendre polynomials are the canonical solutions of the general Legendre equation or equivalently where the indices l and m (which are integers) are referred to as the degree and order of the associated Legendre polynomial respectively. This equation has nonzero solutions that are nonsingular on only if l and m are integers with 0 ≤ m ≤ l, or with trivially equivalent negative values. When in addition m is even, the function is a polynomial.

Jacobi polynomials

In mathematics, Jacobi polynomials (occasionally called hypergeometric polynomials) are a class of classical orthogonal polynomials. They are orthogonal with respect to the weight on the interval . The Gegenbauer polynomials, and thus also the Legendre, Zernike and Chebyshev polynomials, are special cases of the Jacobi polynomials. The Jacobi polynomials were introduced by Carl Gustav Jacob Jacobi. The Jacobi polynomials are defined via the hypergeometric function as follows: where is Pochhammer's symbol (for the rising factorial).

Classical orthogonal polynomials

In mathematics, the classical orthogonal polynomials are the most widely used orthogonal polynomials: the Hermite polynomials, Laguerre polynomials, Jacobi polynomials (including as a special case the Gegenbauer polynomials, Chebyshev polynomials, and Legendre polynomials). They have many important applications in such areas as mathematical physics (in particular, the theory of random matrices), approximation theory, numerical analysis, and many others.