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Lecture# Second Fundamental Tensor

Description

This lecture covers the concept of the second fundamental tensor, which is a 2x2 symmetric matrix representing the normal unit of a surface. The instructor introduces the tensor as a bilinear area form and explains its role in calculating normal curvature. The lecture also delves into the definition of the tensor, its derivatives, and the dot product in the context of metric tensors.

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Related concepts (50)

MATH-123(b): Geometry

Ce cours donne une introduction à la géométrie des courbes et des surfaces.

Gaussian curvature

In differential geometry, the Gaussian curvature or Gauss curvature Κ of a smooth surface in three-dimensional space at a point is the product of the principal curvatures, κ1 and κ2, at the given point: The Gaussian radius of curvature is the reciprocal of Κ. For example, a sphere of radius r has Gaussian curvature 1/r2 everywhere, and a flat plane and a cylinder have Gaussian curvature zero everywhere. The Gaussian curvature can also be negative, as in the case of a hyperboloid or the inside of a torus.

Principal curvature

In differential geometry, the two principal curvatures at a given point of a surface are the maximum and minimum values of the curvature as expressed by the eigenvalues of the shape operator at that point. They measure how the surface bends by different amounts in different directions at that point. At each point p of a differentiable surface in 3-dimensional Euclidean space one may choose a unit normal vector. A normal plane at p is one that contains the normal vector, and will therefore also contain a unique direction tangent to the surface and cut the surface in a plane curve, called normal section.

Darboux frame

In the differential geometry of surfaces, a Darboux frame is a natural moving frame constructed on a surface. It is the analog of the Frenet–Serret frame as applied to surface geometry. A Darboux frame exists at any non-umbilic point of a surface embedded in Euclidean space. It is named after French mathematician Jean Gaston Darboux. Let S be an oriented surface in three-dimensional Euclidean space E3. The construction of Darboux frames on S first considers frames moving along a curve in S, and then specializes when the curves move in the direction of the principal curvatures.

Toeplitz matrix

In linear algebra, a Toeplitz matrix or diagonal-constant matrix, named after Otto Toeplitz, is a matrix in which each descending diagonal from left to right is constant. For instance, the following matrix is a Toeplitz matrix: Any matrix of the form is a Toeplitz matrix. If the element of is denoted then we have A Toeplitz matrix is not necessarily square. A matrix equation of the form is called a Toeplitz system if is a Toeplitz matrix. If is an Toeplitz matrix, then the system has at-most only unique values, rather than .

Scalar curvature

In the mathematical field of Riemannian geometry, the scalar curvature (or the Ricci scalar) is a measure of the curvature of a Riemannian manifold. To each point on a Riemannian manifold, it assigns a single real number determined by the geometry of the metric near that point. It is defined by a complicated explicit formula in terms of partial derivatives of the metric components, although it is also characterized by the volume of infinitesimally small geodesic balls.