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Lecture# Standard Model Overview

Description

This lecture provides an in-depth analysis of the Standard Model, covering topics such as the Higgs mechanism, gauge boson interactions, and the role of chirality in particle physics. The instructor delves into the fundamental parameters of the model, including the gauge couplings, Higgs mass, and quartic Higgs coupling. The lecture also explores the experimental measurements that have validated the Standard Model, such as the discovery of the W and Z bosons and the determination of the Weinberg angle. Additionally, the lecture touches on the organization of quarks and leptons into families and the peculiarities of left-handed and right-handed fermions in the context of SU2 interactions.

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Related concepts (207)

2

2 (two) is a number, numeral and digit. It is the natural number following 1 and preceding 3. It is the smallest and only even prime number. Because it forms the basis of a duality, it has religious and spiritual significance in many cultures. The digit used in the modern Western world to represent the number 2 traces its roots back to the Indic Brahmic script, where "2" was written as two horizontal lines. The modern Chinese and Japanese languages (and Korean Hanja) still use this method.

Weak hypercharge

In the Standard Model of electroweak interactions of particle physics, the weak hypercharge is a quantum number relating the electric charge and the third component of weak isospin. It is frequently denoted and corresponds to the gauge symmetry U(1). It is conserved (only terms that are overall weak-hypercharge neutral are allowed in the Lagrangian). However, one of the interactions is with the Higgs field. Since the Higgs field vacuum expectation value is nonzero, particles interact with this field all the time even in vacuum.

Linear combination

In mathematics, a linear combination is an expression constructed from a set of terms by multiplying each term by a constant and adding the results (e.g. a linear combination of x and y would be any expression of the form ax + by, where a and b are constants). The concept of linear combinations is central to linear algebra and related fields of mathematics. Most of this article deals with linear combinations in the context of a vector space over a field, with some generalizations given at the end of the article.

Conical combination

Given a finite number of vectors in a real vector space, a conical combination, conical sum, or weighted sum of these vectors is a vector of the form where are non-negative real numbers. The name derives from the fact that a conical sum of vectors defines a cone (possibly in a lower-dimensional subspace). The set of all conical combinations for a given set S is called the conical hull of S and denoted cone(S) or coni(S). That is, By taking k = 0, it follows the zero vector (origin) belongs to all conical hulls (since the summation becomes an empty sum).

1

1 (one, unit, unity) is a number representing a single or the only entity. 1 is also a numerical digit and represents a single unit of counting or measurement. For example, a line segment of unit length is a line segment of length 1. In conventions of sign where zero is considered neither positive nor negative, 1 is the first and smallest positive integer. It is also sometimes considered the first of the infinite sequence of natural numbers, followed by 2, although by other definitions 1 is the second natural number, following 0.

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