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Publication# Simulation of shear-driven flows

Abstract

The research work reported in the present dissertation is aimed at the analysis of complex physical phenomena involving instabilities and nonlinearities occurring in fluids through state-of-the-art numerical modeling. Solutions of intricate fluid physics problems are devised in two particularly arduous situations: fluid domains with moving boundaries and the high-Reynolds-number regime dominated by nonlinear convective effects. Shear-driven flows of incompressible Newtonian fluids enclosed in cavities of varying geometries are thoroughly investigated in the two following frameworks: transition with a free surface and confined turbulence. The physical system we consider is made of an incompressible Newtonian fluid filling a bounded, or partially bounded cavity. A series of shear-driven flows are easily generated by setting in motion some part of the container boundary. These driven-cavity flows are not only technologically important, they are of great scientific interest because they display almost all physical fluid phenomena that can possibly occur in incompressible flows, and this in the simplest geometrical settings. Thus corner eddies, secondary flows, longitudinal vortices, complex three-dimensional patterns, chaotic particle motions, nonuniqueness, transition, and turbulence all occur naturally and can be studied in the same geometry. This facilitates the comparison of results from experiments, analysis, and computation over the whole range of Reynolds numbers. The flows under consideration are part of a larger class of confined flows driven by linear or angular momentum gradients. This dissertation reports a detailed study of a novel numerical method developed for the simulation of an unsteady free-surface flow in three-space-dimensions. This method relies on a moving-grid technique to solve the Navier-Stokes equations expressed in the arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) kinematics and discretized by the spectral element method. A comprehensive analysis of the continuous and discretized formulations of the general problem in the ALE frame, with nonlinear, non-homogeneous and unsteady boundary conditions is presented. In this dissertation, we first consider in the internal turbulent flow of a fluid enclosed in a bounded cubical cavity driven by the constant translation of its lid. The solution of this flow relied on large-eddy simulations, which served to improve our physical understanding of this complex flow dynamics. Subsequently, a novel subgrid model based on approximate deconvolution methods coupled with a dynamic mixed scale model was devised. The large-eddy simulation of the lid-driven cubical cavity flow based on this novel subgrid model has shown improvements over traditional subgrid-viscosity type of models. Finally a new interpretation of approximate deconvolution models when used with implicit filtering as a way to approximate the projective grid filter was given. This led to the introduction of the grid filter models. Through the use of a newly-developed method of numerical simulation, in this dissertation we solve unsteady flows with a flat and moving free-surface in the transitional regime. These flows are the incompressible flow of a viscous fluid enclosed in a cylindrical container with an open top surface and driven by the steady rotation of the bottom wall. New flow states are investigated based on the fully three-dimensional solution of the Navier-Stokes equations for these free-surface cylindrical swirling flows, without resorting to any symmetry properties unlike all other results available in the literature. To our knowledge, this study delivers the most general available results for this free-surface problem due to its original mathematical treatment. This second part of the dissertation is a basic research task directed at increasing our understanding of the influence of the presence of a free surface on the intricate transitional flow dynamics of shear-driven flows.

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Related concepts (39)

Large eddy simulation

Large eddy simulation (LES) is a mathematical model for turbulence used in computational fluid dynamics. It was initially proposed in 1963 by Joseph Smagorinsky to simulate atmospheric air currents,

Analysis

Analysis (: analyses) is the process of breaking a complex topic or substance into smaller parts in order to gain a better understanding of it. The technique has been applied in the study of mathema

Turbulence

In fluid dynamics, turbulence or turbulent flow is fluid motion characterized by chaotic changes in pressure and flow velocity. It is in contrast to a laminar flow, which occurs when a fluid flows

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Mathematical and numerical aspects of free surface flows are investigated. On one hand, the mathematical analysis of some free surface flows is considered. A model problem in one space dimension is first investigated. The Burgers equation with diffusion has to be solved on a space interval with one free extremity. This extremity is unknown and moves in time. An ordinary differential equation for the position of the free extremity of the interval is added in order to close the mathematical problem. Local existence in time and uniqueness results are proved for the problem with given domain, then for the free surface problem. A priori and a posteriori error estimates are obtained for the semi-discretization in space. The stability and the convergence of an Eulerian time splitting scheme are investigated. The same methodology is then used to study free surface flows in two space dimensions. The incompressible unsteady Navier-Stokes equations with Neumann boundary conditions on the whole boundary are considered. The whole boundary is assumed to be the free surface. An additional equation is used to describe the moving domain. Local existence in time and uniqueness results are obtained. On the other hand, a model for free surface flows in two and three space dimensions is investigated. The liquid is assumed to be surrounded by a compressible gas. The incompressible unsteady Navier-Stokes equations are assumed to hold in the liquid region. A volume-of-fluid method is used to describe the motion of the liquid domain. The velocity in the gas is disregarded and the pressure is computed by the ideal gas law in each gas bubble trapped by the liquid. A numbering algorithm is presented to recognize the bubbles of gas. Gas pressure is applied as a normal force on the liquid-gas interface. Surface tension effects are also taken into account for the simulation of bubbles or droplets flows. A method for the computation of the curvature is presented. Convergence and accuracy of the approximation of the curvature are discussed. A time splitting scheme is used to decouple the various physical phenomena. Numerical simulations are made in the frame of mould filling to show that the influence of gas on the free surface cannot be neglected. Curvature-driven flows are also considered.

Two major lines of investigation have been pursued in this thesis: (1) More efficient, robust and realistic numerical techniques are designed for the simulation of complex turbulent fluid flows; (2) A new algorithm and its analysis is performed in the context of multiphasic fluid flow, for a cohesive fine-grained sediment (fluid mud) transport in estuaries. Estuaries exist between marine and freshwater system where waters of different physical, chemical and biological composition meet, combine and disperse primarily due to tidal influences. In the present thesis, the behavior of cohesive sediment in estuaries is reviewed based on the existing literature. Basic theories and recent developments are introduced to describe the formation of fluid mud from a very dilute suspension and its motion down a natural river bed with complex bathymetry. The present work contributes to the numerical simulation of complex turbulent multiphasic fluid flows encountered in estuarine channels, with the aim of the better understanding of the underlying physical processes as well as predicting realistically the cohesive sediment transport and bed morphology in such a zone. The model is based on the mass preserving method by using the so-called Raviart-Thomas finite element on the unstructured mesh in the horizontal plane. In the vertical, the computational domain is divided into number of layers at predefined heights and the method uses a conventional conforming P1 finite element scheme, with the advantage that the lowermost and uppermost layers variable height allow a faithful representation of the time-varying bed and free surface, respectively. Concerning the modeling of turbulence, the research effort focuses on the turbulence two-equation k - ε closure for the vertical parameterization of eddy viscosity. More precisely, a robust up-to-date algorithm is used for this issue. The new methodology is developed with the aim to account for more general relevant effects in the closure. The proposed model offers the capability to cope with the stiffness problem introduced by the large difference between the solid phase flow time scale and the hydrodynamic one, by using a sub-cycling strategy, whereas the splitting scheme is adopted with the aim of stability and the positivity of the relevant turbulent variables. The flexibility of the model and its performance are evaluated on several free-surface flow configurations with increasing complexity : homogeneous unsteady non-uniform flows in plane open channel flows, U-shaped (193°) curved open channel flow. Concerning the cohesive sediment transport, most of the existing models in the literature assume the analogous transport characteristics with that of the coarse sediment and adopt the relevant developed sediment transport for the latter to treat the former. Moreover, these existing models do not account for the consolidation of the mud-bed. The present research effort focused on a novel methodology based on the realistic empirical relationships, which accounts for the mutually exclusive processes for re-suspension and/or erosion and deposition of fine sediment, whereas only a limited range of bed shear stresses is allowed for simultaneous erosion and deposition to occur. Hence, on this basis, the new model investigated the bed morphology evolution by taking into account of the fluidization and/or consolidation of the fluid mud, which was handled by modeling the bed in three layers: (i) the mud-bed layer, (ii) the partially consolidated bed and (iii) the fully consolidated bed. The prediction of deposition/re-suspension using these two different methods lead to a non negligible difference in the results. Therefore, investigation of the true mechanism of erosion/deposition processes for cohesive sediments and their implementation in the numerical model is very important. This suggests that a realistic prediction must account for the fresh mud-bed re-suspension once deposited, as well as the consolidation and/or fluidization of the mud-bed deposits. Finally, the capability and improvements of the model are demonstrated, and its predicting performance is successfully evaluated by applying it to the simulation of the Po River Estuary (PRE) in Italy, which is the main source of river water discharge into the Northern Adriatic Sea. The analysis showed that the consolidation/fluidization process at the bed may have important influence on the prediction of bed morphology evolution. The three-layer approach used in this thesis is a first attempt to model these processes in detail within a numerical model.

Marc Anthony David Habisreutinger

In fluid mechanics, turbulence can occur in very simple flow geometries, for Newtonian fluids and without the need for additional flow conditions such as temperature gradients or chemical reactions. In standard cases, intuitive assumptions on the physics of the subgrid scales coupled with the classical theories of turbulence can be well suited for subgrid modelling in large eddy simulation. However, considering more complex situations such as elastic or plasmas turbulence, the behaviour of the subgrid scales is not clearly identified, certainly not as intuitive and the corresponding theories are not available yet. The question is how to proceed when the functional modelling, which imposes a known behaviour to the subgrid scales of the flow, is not possible. For instance, this issue could be overcome using deconvolution-based subgrid models which aim at a partial recovery of the original quantities from their filtered counterpart. In principle, functional modelling is avoided by attempting to invert the filtering operator applied to the governing equations. However, this apparent advantage is completely lost since these models are usually coupled with auxiliary approaches, directly based on functional modelling, in order to account for the interactions with the scales which are not representable on the coarse spatial discretization used for large eddy simulation. The driving motivation of this work is to suppress the need for this secondary modelling which would allow to extend the use of deconvolution-based models to the large eddy simulation of flows whose behaviour of subgrid scales is not identified. Considering the effects of the coarse numerical discretization as the only effective filter applied to the macroscopic equations, an interpretation of the deconvolution models as a way to approximate the effect of the scales lost by numerical discretization on the resolved scales of the flow is demonstrated. Consequently, a new category of subgrid models, the grid filter models, is defined and gives a theoretical justification to the use of deconvolution models for the entire subgrid modelling process. In this perspective, a general method for the computation of the convolution filter which models the effect of the grid filter on the computable scales of the solution is proposed, thereby addressing the key issue of the numerical discretization in large eddy simulation. This modelling approach is validated performing the large eddy simulation of the incompressible flow of a Newtonian fluid in a lid-driven cubical cavity. Comparisons with classical subgrid models allow to assess the validity of this modelling approach and the suppression of the need for functional modelling. In order to extend the validity domain of the grid filter models, the large eddy simulation of an elastic turbulence problem is envisaged. Numerical simulations of elastic turbulence are limited by numerical instabilities which are particularly stringent at high elasticity. Moreover, the computational burden resulting from the required space-time resolutions is significantly increased as compared to the Newtonian case. Consequently, available direct numerical simulations are restricted to periodic and two-dimensional cases. Among these studies, the large eddy simulation of the viscoelastic Kolmogorov flow is chosen as benchmark problem.