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Publication# Development of Insulated Conductive Probes with Platinum Silicide Tips for Atomic Force Microscopy in Cell Biology

Abstract

A microfabrication process of a multifunctional probe is introduced for atomic force microscopy and various electrochemical measurements on biological samples in buffer solution. The silicon nitride probes have a spring constant lower than 0.1 N/m and a conductive tip, which is tightly insulated except at the apex. The conductive core of the tip consists of PtxSi y and shows a typical radius of curvature of 15 nm. A simultaneous measurement of topography and electrical current on graphite in air was demonstrated.

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Ontological neighbourhood

Curvature

In mathematics, curvature is any of several strongly related concepts in geometry. Intuitively, the curvature is the amount by which a curve deviates from being a straight line, or a surface deviates from being a plane. For curves, the canonical example is that of a circle, which has a curvature equal to the reciprocal of its radius. Smaller circles bend more sharply, and hence have higher curvature. The curvature at a point of a differentiable curve is the curvature of its osculating circle, that is the circle that best approximates the curve near this point.

Gaussian curvature

In differential geometry, the Gaussian curvature or Gauss curvature Κ of a smooth surface in three-dimensional space at a point is the product of the principal curvatures, κ1 and κ2, at the given point: The Gaussian radius of curvature is the reciprocal of Κ. For example, a sphere of radius r has Gaussian curvature 1/r2 everywhere, and a flat plane and a cylinder have Gaussian curvature zero everywhere. The Gaussian curvature can also be negative, as in the case of a hyperboloid or the inside of a torus.

Scalar curvature

In the mathematical field of Riemannian geometry, the scalar curvature (or the Ricci scalar) is a measure of the curvature of a Riemannian manifold. To each point on a Riemannian manifold, it assigns a single real number determined by the geometry of the metric near that point. It is defined by a complicated explicit formula in terms of partial derivatives of the metric components, although it is also characterized by the volume of infinitesimally small geodesic balls.

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