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Publication# Mildly sequestered supergravity models and their realization in string theory

Abstract

We elaborate on the idea that five-dimensional models where sequestering is spoiled due to contact interactions induced by vector multiplets may still be mildly sequestered if a global version of the gauge symmetry associated to the latter survives in the hidden sector. Interestingly, it has been argued that although in such a situation non-trivial current current contact interactions are induced by the heavy vector modes, these do not induce soft scalar masses, as a consequence of the global symmetry. We perform a detailed study of how this hybrid mechanism can be implemented in supergravity and string models, focusing on the prototypical case of heterotic M-theory orbifolds. We emphasize that in general the mechanism works only up to subleading effects suppressed by the ratio between the global symmetry breaking scale in the hidden sector and the vector mass scale or the Planck scale. We also argue that this mild sequestering mechanism allows to rehabilitate the scenario of dilaton domination of supersymmetry breaking, which is incompatible with dilaton stabilization in its original version, by exploiting the fact that hidden brane fields do contribute to the cosmological constant but not to soft terms, thanks to the global symmetry. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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String theory

In physics, string theory is a theoretical framework in which the point-like particles of particle physics are replaced by one-dimensional objects called strings. String theory describes how these s

Hidden sector

In particle physics, the hidden sector, also known as the dark sector, is a hypothetical collection of yet-unobserved quantum fields and their corresponding hypothetical particles. The interactions b

Cosmological constant

In cosmology, the cosmological constant (usually denoted by the Greek capital letter lambda: Λ), alternatively called Einstein's cosmological constant,
is the constant coefficient of a term that A

In this work we address one of the phenomenological issues of beyond the Standard Model scenarios which embed Supersymmetry, namely the Supersymmetric Flavour Problem, in the context of String Theory. Indeed, the addition of new interactions to the Standard Model generically spoils its flavour structure which is one of its major achievements since it for example leads to a very elegant understanding of the absence of flavour changing neutral currents in the leptonic sector and of the stability of the proton, thanks to accidental symmetries. We focus on a subset of the phenomenologically dangerous operators, namely the soft scalar masses. One way out of the Supersymmetric Flavour Problem is to geographically separate the observable and hidden sectors along a fifth dimension, gravity being the only interaction propagating in the bulk. In such scenarios, the soft scalar masses are vanishing at the classical level since there is no direct contact term between the observable and hidden multiplets and tend to be universal at the loop-level. However such setups hardly ever come about in String Theory, which is one of the most promising candidates of quantum gravity. In order to make contact with the five-dimensional picture, we focus on the prototypical case of the E8 × E8 Heterotic M-Theory which, in a certain regime, effectively looks five-dimensional and embeds matter fields on two end-of-the-world branes. In these scenarios, not only gravity but also vector multiplets propagate in the five-dimensional bulk, effectively spoiling the sequestered picture. However, since the contact terms responsible for the appearance of soft scalar masses arise due to the exchange of heavy vectors, they do enjoy a current-current structure which can be exploited to inhibit the emergence of soft scalar masses by postulating a global symmetry in the hidden sector. In order to assess the possibility of realising such a mechanism, we first study the full dependence of the Kähler potential on both the moduli and the matter fields in the case of orbifold and Calabi-Yau compactifications. We then determine whether an effective sequestering may be achieved thanks to a global symmetry and argue that whereas for orbifold models our strategy can naturally be put at work, it can only be implemented in a subset of Calabi-Yau models.

We analyze the general structure of soft scalar masses emerging in superstring models involving anomalous U(1) symmetries, with the aim of characterizing more systematically the circumstances under which they can happen to be flavor universal. We consider both heterotic orbifold and intersecting brane models, possibly with several anomalous and non-anomalous spontaneously broken U(1) symmetries. The hidden sector is assumed to consist of the universal dilaton, Kahler class and complex structure moduli, which are supposed to break supersymmetry, and a minimal set of Higgs fields which compensate the Fayet-Iliopoulos terms. We leave the superpotential that is supposed to stabilize the hidden sector fields unspecified, but we carefully take into account the relations implied by gauge invariance and the constraints required for the existence of a metastable vacuum with vanishing cosmological constant. The results are parametrized in terms of a constrained Goldstino direction, suitably defined effective modular weights, and the U(1) charges and shifts. We show that the effect induced by vector multiplets strongly depends on the functional form of the Kahler potential for the Higgs fields. We find in particular that whenever these are charged matter fields, like in heterotic models, the effect is non-trivial, whereas when they are shifting moduli fields, like in certain intersecting brane models, the effect may vanish.

2007The main topics discussed in this thesis are supersymmetric low-energy effective theories and metastability conditions in generic non-renormalizable models with global and local supersymmetry. In the first part we discuss the conditions under which the low-energy expansion in space-time derivatives preserves supersymmetry implying that heavy multiplets can be more efficiently integrated out directly at the superfield level. These conditions translate into the requirements that also fermions and auxiliary fields should be small compared to the heavy mass scale. They apply not only to the matter sector, but also to the gravitational one if present, and imply in that case that the gravitino mass should be small. We finally give a simple prescription to integrate out heavy chiral and vector superfields consisting respectively in imposing stationarity of the superpotential and of the Kähler potential; the procedure holds in the same form both for global and local supersymmetry. In the second part we study general criteria for the existence of metastable vacua which break global supersymmetry in models with local gauge symmetries. In particular we present a strategy to define an absolute upper bound on the mass of the lightest scalar field which depends on the geometrical properties of the Kähler target manifold. This bound can be saturated by properly tuning the superpotential and its positivity therefore represents a necessary and sufficient condition for the existence of metastable vacua. It is derived by looking at the subspace of all those directions in field space for which an arbitrary supersymmetric mass term is not allowed and scalar masses are controlled by supersymmetry-breaking splitting effects. This subspace includes not only the direction of supersymmetry breaking, but also the directions of gauge symmetry breaking and the lightest scalar is in general a linear combination of fields spanning all these directions. Our purpose is to show that the largest value for the lightest mass is in general achieved when the lightest scalar is a combination of the Goldstone and the Goldstino partners. We conclude by computing the effects induced by the integration of heavy multiplets on the light masses. In particular we focus on the sGoldstino partners and we show that heavy chiral multiplets induce a negative level-repulsion effect that tends to compromise vacuum stability, whereas heavy vector multiplets in general induce a positive-definite contribution. Our results find application in the context of string-inspired supergravity models, where metastability conditions can be used to discriminate among different compactification scenarios and supersymmetric effective theories can be used to face the problem of moduli stabilization.