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Publication# Spatial Coupling as a Proof Technique and Three Applications

Abstract

The aim of this paper is to show that spatial coupling can be viewed not only as a means to build better graphical models, but also as a tool to better understand uncoupled models. The starting point is the observation that some asymptotic properties of graphical models are easier to prove in the case of spatial coupling. In such cases, one can then use the so-called interpolation method to transfer known results for the spatially coupled case to the uncoupled one. Our main use of this framework is for Low-density parity check (LDPC) codes, where we use interpolation to show that the average entropy of the codeword conditioned on the observation is asymptotically the same for spatially coupled as for uncoupled ensembles. We give three applications of this result for a large class of LDPC ensembles. The first one is a proof of the so-called Maxwell construction stating that the MAP threshold is equal to the area threshold of the BP GEXIT curve. The second is a proof of the equality between the BP and MAP GEXIT curves above the MAP threshold. The third application is the intimately related fact that the replica symmetric formula for the conditional entropy in the infinite block length limit is exact.

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In the mathematical field of numerical analysis, interpolation is a type of estimation, a method of constructing (finding) new data points based on the range of a discrete set of known data points. In engineering and science, one often has a number of data points, obtained by sampling or experimentation, which represent the values of a function for a limited number of values of the independent variable. It is often required to interpolate; that is, estimate the value of that function for an intermediate value of the independent variable.

In numerical analysis, polynomial interpolation is the interpolation of a given bivariate data set by the polynomial of lowest possible degree that passes through the points of the dataset. Given a set of n + 1 data points , with no two the same, a polynomial function is said to interpolate the data if for each . There is always a unique such polynomial, commonly given by two explicit formulas, the Lagrange polynomials and Newton polynomials.

In mathematics, bilinear interpolation is a method for interpolating functions of two variables (e.g., x and y) using repeated linear interpolation. It is usually applied to functions sampled on a 2D rectilinear grid, though it can be generalized to functions defined on the vertices of (a mesh of) arbitrary convex quadrilaterals. Bilinear interpolation is performed using linear interpolation first in one direction, and then again in another direction.

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