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Publication# Quasi-Newton Methods for Real-Time Simulation of Hyperelastic Materials

Abstract

We present a new method for real-time physics-based simulation supporting many different types of hyperelastic materials. Previous methods such as Position-Based or Projective Dynamics are fast but support only a limited selection of materials; even classical materials such as the Neo-Hookean elasticity are not supported. Recently, Xu et al. [2015] introduced new "spline-based materials" that can be easily controlled by artists to achieve desired animation effects. Simulation of these types of materials currently relies on Newton's method, which is slow, even with only one iteration per timestep. In this article, we showthat Projective Dynamics can be interpreted as a quasi-Newton method. This insight enables very efficient simulation of a large class of hyperelastic materials, including the Neo-Hookean, spline-based materials, and others. The quasi-Newton interpretation also allows us to leverage ideas from numerical optimization. In particular, we show that our solver can be further accelerated using L-BFGS updates ( Limited-memory Broyden-Fletcher-Goldfarb-Shanno algorithm). Our final method is typically more than 10 times faster than one iteration of Newton's method without compromising quality. In fact, our result is often more accurate than the result obtained with one iteration of Newton's method. Our method is also easier to implement, implying reduced software development costs.

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Simulation

A simulation is the imitation of the operation of a real-world process or system over time. Simulations require the use of models; the model represents the key characteristics or behaviors of the selected system or process, whereas the simulation represents the evolution of the model over time. Often, computers are used to execute the simulation. Simulation is used in many contexts, such as simulation of technology for performance tuning or optimizing, safety engineering, testing, training, education, and video games.

Newton's method in optimization

In calculus, Newton's method (also called Newton–Raphson) is an iterative method for finding the roots of a differentiable function F, which are solutions to the equation F (x) = 0. As such, Newton's method can be applied to the derivative f ′ of a twice-differentiable function f to find the roots of the derivative (solutions to f ′(x) = 0), also known as the critical points of f. These solutions may be minima, maxima, or saddle points; see section "Several variables" in Critical point (mathematics) and also section "Geometric interpretation" in this article.

Newton's method

In numerical analysis, Newton's method, also known as the Newton–Raphson method, named after Isaac Newton and Joseph Raphson, is a root-finding algorithm which produces successively better approximations to the roots (or zeroes) of a real-valued function. The most basic version starts with a single-variable function f defined for a real variable x, the function's derivative f′, and an initial guess x0 for a root of f. If the function satisfies sufficient assumptions and the initial guess is close, then is a better approximation of the root than x0.

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