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Publication# Experiments with the Markoff Surface

Abstract

We confirm, for the primes up to 3000, the conjecture of Bourgain-Gamburd-Sarnak and Baragar on strong approximation for the Markoff surface modulo primes. For primes congruent to 3 modulo 4, we find data suggesting that some natural graphs constructed from this equation are asymptotically Ramanujan. For primes congruent to 1 modulo 4, the data suggest a weaker spectral gap. In both cases, there is close agreement with the Kesten-McKay law for the density of states for random 3-regular graphs. We also study the connectedness of other level sets . In the degenerate case of the Cayley cubic, we give a complete description of the orbits.

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Related concepts (6)

Primality test

A primality test is an algorithm for determining whether an input number is prime. Among other fields of mathematics, it is used for cryptography. Unlike integer factorization, primality tests do not generally give prime factors, only stating whether the input number is prime or not. Factorization is thought to be a computationally difficult problem, whereas primality testing is comparatively easy (its running time is polynomial in the size of the input).

Modulo

In computing, the modulo operation returns the remainder or signed remainder of a division, after one number is divided by another (called the modulus of the operation). Given two positive numbers a and n, a modulo n (often abbreviated as a mod n) is the remainder of the Euclidean division of a by n, where a is the dividend and n is the divisor. For example, the expression "5 mod 2" would evaluate to 1, because 5 divided by 2 has a quotient of 2 and a remainder of 1, while "9 mod 3" would evaluate to 0, because 9 divided by 3 has a quotient of 3 and a remainder of 0; there is nothing to subtract from 9 after multiplying 3 times 3.

Srinivasa Ramanujan

Srinivasa Ramanujan (ˈsriːnᵻvɑːsə_rɑːˈmɑːnʊdʒən ; born Srinivasa Ramanujan Aiyangar, sriːniʋaːsa ɾaːmaːnud͡ʑan ajːaŋgar; 22 December 1887 26 April 1920) was an Indian mathematician. Though he had almost no formal training in pure mathematics, he made substantial contributions to mathematical analysis, number theory, infinite series, and continued fractions, including solutions to mathematical problems then considered unsolvable. Ramanujan initially developed his own mathematical research in isolation.