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Publication# Many-body localization in a fragmented Hilbert space

Abstract

We study many-body localization (MBL) in a pair-hopping model exhibiting strong fragmentation of the Hilbert space. We show that several Krylov subspaces have both ergodic statistics in the thermodynamic limit and a dimension that scales much slower than the full Hilbert space but still exponentially. Such a property allows us to study the MBL phase transition in systems including up to 64 spins. The different Krylov spaces that we consider show clear signatures of a many-body localization transition, both in the Kullback-Leibler divergence of the distribution of their level spacing ratio and their entanglement properties. However, they also present distinct scalings with the system size. Depending on the subspace, the critical disorder strength can be nearly independent of the system size or conversely show an approximately linear increase with the number of spins.

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Hilbert space

In mathematics, Hilbert spaces (named after David Hilbert) allow the methods of linear algebra and calculus to be generalized from (finite-dimensional) Euclidean vector spaces to spaces that may be infinite-dimensional. Hilbert spaces arise naturally and frequently in mathematics and physics, typically as function spaces. Formally, a Hilbert space is a vector space equipped with an inner product that induces a distance function for which the space is a complete metric space.

Krylov subspace

In linear algebra, the order-r Krylov subspace generated by an n-by-n matrix A and a vector b of dimension n is the linear subspace spanned by the of b under the first r powers of A (starting from ), that is, The concept is named after Russian applied mathematician and naval engineer Alexei Krylov, who published a paper about it in 1931. Vectors are linearly independent until , and . Thus, denotes the maximal dimension of a Krylov subspace. The maximal dimension satisfies and . More exactly, , where is the minimal polynomial of .

Quantum entanglement

Quantum entanglement is the phenomenon that occurs when a group of particles are generated, interact, or share spatial proximity in a way such that the quantum state of each particle of the group cannot be described independently of the state of the others, including when the particles are separated by a large distance. The topic of quantum entanglement is at the heart of the disparity between classical and quantum physics: entanglement is a primary feature of quantum mechanics not present in classical mechanics.