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Publication# Growth, timing, & trajectory of vortices behind a rotating plate

Abstract

The presence of aerodynamic vortices is widespread in nature. They can be found at small scales near the wing tip of flying insects or at bigger scale in the form of hurricanes, cyclones or even galaxies. They are identified as coherent regions of high vorticity where the flow is locally dominated by rotation over strain. A better comprehension of vortex dynamics has a great potential to increase aerodynamic performances of moving vehicles, such as drones or autonomous underwater vehicles. An accelerated flat plate, a pitching airfoil or a jet flow ejected from a nozzle give rise to the formation of a primary vortex, followed by the shedding of smaller secondary vortices. We experimentally study the growth, timing and trajectory of primary and secondary vortices generated from a rectangular flat plate that is rotated around its centre location in a quiescent fluid. We systematically vary the rotational speed of the plate to get a chord based Reynolds number \Rey that ranges from 800 to 12000. We identify the critical \Rey for the occurrence of secondary vortices to be at 2500. The timing of the formation of the primary vortex is \Rey independent but is affected by the plate's dimensions. The circulation of the primary vortex increases with the angular position $\alpha$ of the plate, until the plate reaches 30°. Increasing the thickness and decreasing the chord lead to a longer growth of the primary vortex. Therefore, the primary vortex reaches a higher dimensionless limit strength. We define a new dimensionless time $T^*$ based on the thickness of the plate to scale the age of the primary vortex. The primary vortex stops growing when $T^* \approx 10$, regardless of the dimensions of the plate. We consider this value to be the vortex formation number of the primary vortex generated from a rotating rectangular flat plate in a Reynolds number range that goes from 800 to 12000. When $\alpha$ > 30°, the circulation released in the flow is entrained into secondary vortices for $\Rey > 2500$. The circulation of all secondary vortices is approximately 4 to 5 times smaller than the circulation of the primary vortex. We present a modified version of the Kaden spiral that accurately predicts the shear layer evolution and the trajectory of primary and secondary vortices during the entire rotation of the plate.We model the timing dynamics of secondary vortices with a power law equation that depends on two distinct parameter: $\chi$ and $\alpha_{0}$.The parameter $\chi$ indicates the relative increase in the time interval between the release of successive secondary vortices.The parameter $\alpha_{0}$ indicates the angular position at which the primary vortex stops growing and pinches-off from the plate.We also observe that the total circulation released in the flow is proportional to $\alpha^{1/3}$, as predicted by the inviscid theory.The combination of the power law equation with the total circulation computed from inviscid theory predict the strength of primary and secondary vortices, based purely on the plate's geometry and kinematics.The strength prediction is confirmed by experimental measurements.In this thesis we provided a valuable insight into the growth, timing and trajectory of primary and secondary vortices generated by a rotating flat plate. Future work should be directed towards more complex object geometries and kinematics, to confirm the validity of the modified Kaden spiral and explore the influence on the formation number.

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Vortex rings are very efficient at transporting fluid on long distances and can generate large forces, either thrust or drag. These abilities are influenced by the vorticity distribution within the vortex. Previous work on vortices produced by piston-cylinders showed that the vorticity distribution reaches a steady state when the vortex separates from the apparatus. First, we experimentally investigate the evolution of the vorticity distribution independently of the vortex separation. The vortices are created by impulsively accelerating cones immersed in water. In this configuration, the self-induced velocity of the vortex is directed towards the cone and there is no separation. Particle image velocimetry is carried on at Reynolds numbers around 30000. The vorticity distribution is quantified using the non-dimensional energy of the vortex, which is the energy with respect to the impulse and circulation. After three convective times, the volume of fluid recirculating within the vortex ring is filled with vortical fluid and the non-dimensional energy to a value around 0.3. The vorticity produced on the cone circumvents the vortex and a portion of the vortex volume is lost via tail-shedding. The translational velocity of the vortex ring linearly depends on its circulation and non-dimensional energy. This velocity, relative to the cone, also converges after three convective times and is found to be a more reliable scaling parameter than energy or circulation. It consistently reaches values around 0.9. In a second part, we present models to predict the vortex growth in the wake of disks and cones. Two models are developed. The first model reduces the vortex ring to a core of constant vorticity density. The translational velocity of the vortex is deduced and its trajectory integrated. The model accurately predicts the maximum circulation of the vortex. A second model, based on axisymmetric discrete vortex methods, predicts the growth, vorticity distribution and tail-shedding of the vortex. A third model is developed to explain why the non-dimensional energy consistently converges to values around 0.3. Based on the self similar roll-up of inviscid shear layers, a non-dimensional energy of 0.33 is computed for vortices formed by impulsively accelerated disks or pistons. The model also predicts that a linear acceleration profile leads to a more uniform vorticity distribution, decreasing the non-dimensional energy to 0.18. This result indicates that the vorticity distribution can be controlled by varying the velocity profile of the vortex generator. Another control option is to use permeable disks. We impulsively accelerated perforated disks and observed the vortex formation. A portion of the incoming flow bleeds through the disk and does not circulate around the disk edge, resulting in a lower vorticity maximum. The vortex ring has a more uniform vorticity distribution, as well as a more elongated shape. The non-dimensional energy is brought down to 0.14. Finally, vortex rings have a great potential to transport fluid on long distances, such as extinguishing powder. Their resilience to vortical perturbations is critical for the transport and depends on the vorticity distribution within the vortex. Simulations with nested contour methods are performed to assess that resilience. Vortices with lower non-dimensional energy shed less vortical volume when facing perturbations and qualify as better candidates for fluid transport.

In the present study, the effect of a hydrofoil trailing edge shape on the wake dynamic and its interaction with the mechanical structure is investigated. This would help better describe the physical reasons for vibration reduction when using oblique and Donaldson trailing edges in comparison to a truncated trailing edge and subsequently allow its further optimization. Thus, hydrofoils with oblique and Donaldson trailing edges are tested in a high-speed cavitation tunnel at zero angle of attack and high Reynolds numbers, ReL = 5·105 – 3·106. The truncated trailing edge hydrofoil is selected as reference. A velocity survey is performed via Laser Doppler Velocimetery, LDV, and Particle Image Velocimetry, PIV. Proper-Orthogonal-Decomposition, POD, is used to extract coherent structures from PIV data. In addition, flow induced vibration measurements and high-speed visualizations are performed. Finally, the effects of a tripped boundary layer transition on the wake are investigated and compared with the natural boundary layer transition. Vortex-induced vibration is found to decrease significantly for oblique and Donaldson trailing edges in comparison to the truncated case, specially under lock-off condition. However, minimum vibration corresponds to the Donaldson trailing edge. The high-speed videos clearly show that for three tested hydrofoils the alternate vortices clearly detach from suction and pressure sides of the trailing edge. However, for the oblique and Donaldson trailing edges the location of the lower vortex detachment is obviously shifted upstream with respect to the upper one. As a result, when the upper vortex rolls up, it coincides with the passage of the lower vortex, leading to their collision. This strong interaction leads to a redistribution of the vorticity, which does not concentrate within the core of Karman vortices any more. However, the spatial phase shift between the separation point of the upper and the lower vortices is different in the case of oblique and Donaldson trailing edges due to the being free the separation point on the Donaldson curve. LDV phase-locked averaging under lock-in condition is performed for truncated, oblique and Donaldson trailing edges. The truncated trailing edge exhibits a symmetric wake. However, in the case of the oblique and Donaldson trailing edges, an asymmetric thickening of the downward near wake is observed. The stream wise velocity fluctuation shows two peaks of different amplitudes. In the case of the truncated trailing edge, the upper and lower vortices have the same core diameter, contrary to the oblique trailing edge, where a larger vortex core diameter is found for the lower vortex. In the case of Donaldson trailing edge, the LDV phase-locked averaging is performed for the tripped transition where the vibration amplitude is high enough to perform the phase-locked average. The measurements show the passage of one vortex after the collision in the near wake contrary to the oblique one. However, the passage of two vortices corresponding to the upper and lower vortex is found far from the Donaldson trailing edge. LDV measurements show that the collision of the vortices for the oblique trailing edge, observed under lock-in conditions, also prevails for the lock-off condition in the case of oblique and Donaldson trailing edges. The velocity profile comparison at the vortex formation length for three trailing edges shows that in the case of the Donaldson trailing edge, the wake width increases significantly in comparison to two other trailing edges. Moreover, the minimum stream wise and transverse velocity fluctuation profiles obtained for the three trailing edges correspond to the Donaldson trailing edge. The strong similarity of results obtained for lock-in and lock-off conditions indicates that the collision between upper and lower vortices, clearly observed under lock-in, also occurs for lock-off condition. A thicker boundary layer with laminar-to-turbulent transition occurring further upstream is observed for the pressure side of the Donaldson trailing edge in comparison with the suction side. In contrast to the truncated trailing edge, both sides have a similar boundary layer structure and a similar transition location. Moreover, a thicker boundary layer is found for the Donaldson trailing edge in comparison to the truncated case. The collision between upper and lower vortices is also observed in the case of a tripped transition. However, the vortices are shed with a larger core diameter, greater strength, and lower frequency than for the natural transition. These investigations let us believe that the collision between upper and lower vortices and the resulting vorticity redistribution is the main reason for the vibration reduction obtained with oblique and Donaldson trailing edges. This result opens the way for more effective hydrofoil geometry optimization for further reduction of flow induced vibration.

Philippe Ausoni, François Avellan, Mohamed Farhat, Amirreza Zobeiri

The effect of hydrofoil trailing edge shape on the wake dynamic and flow induced vibration is investigated at high Reynolds number, Re = 0.5 x 10(6)-2.9 x 10(6). Two NACA 0009 hydrofoils with blunt and oblique trailing edges are tested. The velocity field is surveyed with the help of Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV), and Particle-Image-Velocimetry, (Ply). Proper-Orthogonal-Decomposition (POD) is used to extract coherent structures from PIV data. Besides, flow induced vibration measurements and highspeed visualization are also performed. A significant reduction of vortex induced vibration is obtained with the oblique trailing edge, in accordance with former reports. High speed videos clearly demonstrate that for both tested hydrofoils, the alternate vortices detach from upper and lower corners of the trailing edge. Due to the oblique truncation, the lower detachment location is shifted upstream with respect to the upper one. Therefore, as the upper vortex rolls up, it coincides with the passage of the lower vortex, leading to their collision. This strong interaction leads to a redistribution of the vorticity, which no more concentrates within the core of Karman vortices. The analysis of the phase locked average of velocity profiles reveals that the oblique truncation leads to a thickening of the core of upper and lower vortices as well as a disorganization of the alternate shedding in the near wake, recovers downstream. We strongly believe that the collision between upper and lower vortices and the resulting vorticity redistribution is the main reason of the vibration reduction obtained with oblique trailing edge. This result paves the way for further optimization of the trailing edge shape. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.