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Publication# A Shadow Perspective on Equivariant Hochschild Homologies

Abstract

Shadows for bicategories, defined by Ponto, provide a useful framework that generalizes classical and topological Hochschild homology. In this paper, we define Hochschild-type invariants for monoids in a symmetric monoidal, simplicial model category V, as well as for small V-categories. We show that each of these constructions extends to a shadow on an appropriate bicategory, which implies in particular that they are Morita invariant. We also define a generalized theory of Hochschild homology twisted by an automorphism and show that it is Morita invariant. Hochschild homology of Green functors and C-n-twisted topological Hochschild homology fit into this framework, which allows us to conclude that these theories are Morita invariant. We also study linearization maps relating the topological and algebraic theories, proving that the linearization map for topological Hochschild homology arises as a lax shadow functor, and constructing a new linearization map relating topological restriction homology and algebraic restriction homology. Finally, we construct a twisted Dennis trace map from the fixed points of equivariant algebraic K-theory to twisted topological Hochschild homology.

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Topology

In mathematics, topology (from the Greek words τόπος, and λόγος) is concerned with the properties of a geometric object that are preserved under continuous deformations, such as stretching, twisting

Model category

In mathematics, particularly in homotopy theory, a model category is a with distinguished classes of morphisms ('arrows') called 'weak equivalences', 'fibrations' and 'cofibrations' satisfying certa

Algebraic K-theory

Algebraic K-theory is a subject area in mathematics with connections to geometry, topology, ring theory, and number theory. Geometric, algebraic, and arithmetic objects are assigned objects called K-

K-Theory was originally defined by Grothendieck as a contravariant functor from a subcategory of schemes to abelian groups, known today as K0. The same kind of construction was then applied to other fields of mathematics, like spaces and (not necessarily commutative) rings. In all these cases, it consists of some process applied, not directly to the object one wants to study, but to some category related to it: the category of vector bundles over a space, of finitely generated projective modules over a ring, of locally free modules over a scheme, for instance. Later, Quillen extracted axioms that all these categories satisfy and that allow the Grothendieck construction of K0. The categorical structure he discovered is called today a Quillen-exact category. It led him not only to broaden the domain of application of K-theory, but also to define a whole K-theory spectrum associated to such a category. Waldhausen next generalized Quillen's notion of an exact category by introducing categories with weak equivalences and cofibrations, which one nowadays calls Waldhausen categories. K-theory has since been studied as a functor from the category of suitably structured (Quillen-exact, Waldhausen, symmetric monoidal) small categories to some category of spectra1. This has given rise to a huge field of research, so much so that there is a whole journal devoted to the subject. In this thesis, we want to take advantage of these tools to begin studying K-theory from another perspective. Indeed, we have the impression that, in the generalization of topological and algebraic K-theory that has been started by Quillen, something important has been left aside. K-theory was initiated as a (contravariant) functor from the various categories of spaces, rings, schemes, …, not from the category of Waldhausen small categories. Of course, one obtains information about a ring by studying its Quillen-exact category of (finitely generated projective) modules, but still, the final goal is the study of the ring, and, more globally, of the category of rings. Thus, in a general theory, one should describe a way to associate not only a spectrum to a structured category, but also a structured category to an object. Moreover, this process should take the morphisms of these objects into account. This gives rise to two fundamental questions. What kind of mathematical objects should K-theory be applied to? Given such an object, what category "over it" should one consider and how does it vary over morphisms? Considering examples, we have made the following observations. Suppose C is the category that is to be investigated by means of K-theory, like the category of topological spaces or of schemes, for instance. The category associated to an object of C is a sub-category of the category of modules over some monoid in a monoidal category with additional structure (topological, symmetric, abelian, model). The situation is highly "fibred": not only morphisms of C induce (structured) functors between these sub-categories of modules, but the monoidal category in which theses modules take place might vary from one object of C to another. In important cases, the sub-categories of modules considered are full sub-categories of "locally trivial" modules with respect to some (possibly weakened notion of) Grothendieck topology on C . That is, there are some specific modules that are considered sufficiently simple to be called trivial and locally trivial modules are those that are, locally over a covering of the Grothendieck topology, isomorphic to these. In this thesis, we explore, with K-theory in view, a categorical framework that encodes these kind of data. We also study these structures for their own sake, and give examples in other fields. We do not mention in this abstract set-theoretical issues, but they are handled with care in the discussion. Moreover, an appendix is devoted to the subject. After recalling classical facts of Grothendieck fibrations (and their associated indexed categories), we provide new insights into the concept of a bifibration. We prove that there is a 2-equivalence between the 2-category of bifibrations over a category ℬ and a 2-category of pseudo double functors from ℬ into the double category of adjunctions in CAT. We next turn our attention to composable pairs of fibrations , as they happen to be fundamental objects of the theory. We give a characterization of these objects in terms of pseudo-functors ℬop → FIBc into the 2-category of fibrations and Cartesian functors. We next turn to a short survey about Grothendieck (pre-)topologies. We start with the basic notion of covering function, that associate to each object of a category a family of coverings of the object. We study separately the saturation of a covering function with respect to sieves and to refinements. The Grothendieck topology generated by a pretopology is shown to be the result of these two steps. We define then, inspired by Street [89], the notion of (locally) trivial objects in a fibred category P : ℰ → ℬ equipped with some notion of covering of objects of the base ℬ. The trivial objects are objects chosen in some fibres. An object E in the fibre over B ∈ ℬ is locally trivial if there exists a covering {fi : Bi → B}i ∈ I such the inverse image of E along fi is isomorphic to a trivial object. Among examples are torsors, principal bundles, vector bundles, schemes, locally constant sheaves, quasi-coherent and locally free sheaves of modules, finitely generated projective modules over commutative rings, topological manifolds, … We give conditions under which locally trivial objects form a subfibration of P and describe the relationship between locally trivial objects with respect to subordinated covering functions. We then go into the algebraic part of the theory. We give a definition of monoidal fibred categories and show a 2-equivalence with monoidal indexed categories. We develop algebra (monoids and modules) in these two settings. Modules and monoids in a monoidal fibred category ℰ → ℬ happen to form a pair of fibrations . We end this thesis by explaining how to apply this categorical framework to K-theory and by proposing some prospects of research. ______________________________ 1 Works of Lurie, Toën and Vezzosi have shown that K-theory really depends on the (∞, 1)-category associated to a Waldhausen category [94]. Moreover, topological K-theory of spaces and Banach algebras takes the fact that the Waldhausen category is topological in account [62, 70].

This thesis, which presents a new approach to the algebraic K-theory, is divided into two parts. The first one is devoted to the category of small simplicial categories. First, we construct a new model structure on sCat = [Δop,Cat] which is called the diagonal model structure, in reference to the diagonal model structure of Moerdijk on bisimplicial sets sSet2. Then we show that the new structure is proper and cellular. Note that this new model structure is not tensored and cotensored over the category of simplicial sets sSet in a manner consistent with the model structure. To remedy this, we use another model structure on sSet2 defined in the article of Cegarra and Remedios [3], which is equivalent to the Moerdijk structure. So we build a second new model structure on [Δop,Cat], which is cofibrantly generated, left proper, cellular and (co)tensored on sSet in a compatible way. Based on the work of [13], we construct the stable category of spectra (not symmetric) SpN(sCat*, Σ). It garantees the existence of Ω-spectra, which allows us to define thenotion of "weak Waldhausen category". The calculation of the simplicial enrichment map of the model category SpN(sCat*, Σ), leads to our new definition of algebraic K-theory of weak Waldhausen categories . The second part of this thesis is an attempt to generalize the previous results for enriched categories. First we begin by recalling the theory of ∞-categories and ∞-groupoids, based on the work of Joyal [14] and Lurie [18]. Then we make comparisons of ∞-categories with the category of simplicial sets equipped with the usual model structure. Our first result is the construction of a model structure on Top – Cat , the category of small categories enriched over the category of topological spaces Top, based on the work of Bergner [1] . The category Top – Cat is Quillen equivalent to sSet – Cat. Note that all objects in Top – Cat are fibrant ; this remark will play an important role in this theory. Our second result is the construction of a new model structure on the category of small simplicial categories enriched over Top, denoted by Top – sCat = [Δop,Top – Cat]. We show that this structure is proper and cellular. The fact that Top – sCat is not (co)tensored over sSet poses a barrier to defining the category of spectra SpN(sCat*, Σ).

This thesis is concerned with the algebraic theory of hermitian forms. It is organized in two parts. The first, consisting of the first two chapters, deals with some descent properties of unimodular hermitian forms over central simple algebras with involution. The second, which consists of the last two chapters, generalizes several classical properties of unimodular hermitian forms over rings with involution to the setting of sesquilinear forms in hermitian categories. The original results established in this thesis are joint work with Professor Eva Bayer-Fluckiger. The first chapter contains an introduction to the algebraic theory of unimodular ε-hermitian forms over fields with involution. One knows that if L/K is an extension of odd degree (where char(K) ≠ 2) then the restriction map rL/K : W(K) →W(L) is injective. In addition, if the extension is purely inseparable then the map rL/K is bijective. In the second chapter we first introduce the basic notions and techniques of the theory of unimodular ε-hermitian forms over algebras with involution, in particular the technique of Morita equivalence. Let L/K be a finite field extension, τ an involution on L and A a finite-dimensional K-algebra endowed with an involution α such that αœK = τœK. E. Bayer-Fluckiger and H.W. Lenstra proved that if L/K is of odd degree and αœK = idK then the restriction map rL/Kε : Wε(A, α) → Wε(A ⊗K L, α ⊗ τ) is injective for any ε = ±1. This holds also if αœK ≠ idK. We prove that if, in addition, L/K is purely inseparable and A is a central simple K-algebra, then the above map is actually bijective. The proof proceeds via induction on the degree of the algebra and uses in an essential way an exact sequence of Witt groups due to R. Parimala, R. Sridharan and V. Suresh, later extended by N. Gernier-Boley and M.G. Mahmoudi. The third chapter contains a survey of the theory of hermitian and quadratic forms in hermitian categories. In particular, we cover the transfer between two hermitian categories, the reduction by an ideal, the transfer into the endomorphism ring of an object, as well as the Krull-Schmidt-Azumaya theorem and some of its applications. In the fourth chapter we prove, adapting the ideas developed by E. Bayer-Fluckiger and L. Fainsilber, that the category of sesquilinear forms in a hermitian category ℳ is equivalent to the category of unimodular hermitian forms in the category of double arrows of ℳ. In order to obtain this equivalence of categories we associate to a sesquilinear form the double arrow consisting of its two adjoints, equipped with a canonical unimodular hermitian form. This equivalence of categories allows us to define a notion of Witt group for sesquilinear forms in hermitian categories. This generalizes the classical notion of a Witt group of unimodular hermitian forms over rings with involution. Using the above equivalence of categories we deduce analogues of the Witt cancellation theorem and Springer's theorem for sesquilinear forms over certain algebras with involution. We also extend some finiteness results due to E. Bayer-Fluckiger, C. Kearton and S.M. J. Wilson. In addition, we study the weak Hasse-Minkowski principle for sesquilinear forms over skew fields with involution over global fields. We prove that this principle holds for systems of sesquilinear forms over a skew field over a global field and endowed with a unitary involution. Two systems of sesquilinear forms are hence isometric if and only if they are isometric over all the completions of the base field. This result has already been known for unimodular hermitian and skew-hermitian forms over rings with involution, under the same hypothesis. Finally, we study the behaviour of the Witt group of a linear hermitian category under extension of scalars. Let K be a field of characteristic different from 2, L a finite extension of K and ℳ a K-linear hermitian category. We define the extension of ℳ to L as being the category with the same objects as ℳ and with morphisms given by the morphisms of ℳ extended to L. We obtain an L-linear hermitian category, denoted by ℳL. The canonical functor of scalar extension ℛL/K : ℳ → ℳL induces for any ε = ±1 a group homomorphism Wε(ℳ) →Wε(ℳL). We prove that if all the idempotents of the category ℳ split and the extension L/K is of odd degree then this homomorphism is injective. This result has already been known in the case when ℳ is the category of finite-dimensional K-vector spaces.