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Publication# DARE-GRAM : Unsupervised Domain Adaptation Regression by Aligning Inverse Gram Matrices

Abstract

Unsupervised Domain Adaptation Regression (DAR) aims to bridge the domain gap between a labeled source dataset and an unlabelled target dataset for regression problems. Recent works mostly focus on learning a deep feature encoder by minimizing the discrepancy between source and target features. In this work, we present a different perspective for the DAR problem by analyzing the closed-form ordinary least square (OLS) solution to the linear regressor in the deep domain adaptation context. Rather than aligning the original feature embedding space, we propose to align the inverse Gram matrix of the features, which is motivated by its presence in the OLS solution and the Gram matrix's ability to capture the feature correlations. Specifically, we propose a simple yet effective DAR method which leverages the pseudo-inverse low-rank property to align the scale and angle in a selected subspace generated by the pseudo-inverse Gram matrix of the two domains. We evaluate our method on three domain adaptation regression benchmarks. Experimental results demonstrate that our method achieves state-of-the-art performance. Our code is available at https://github. com/ismailnejjar/DARE-GRAM.

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Ontological neighbourhood

Invertible matrix

In linear algebra, an n-by-n square matrix A is called invertible (also nonsingular, nondegenerate or (rarely used) regular), if there exists an n-by-n square matrix B such that where In denotes the n-by-n identity matrix and the multiplication used is ordinary matrix multiplication. If this is the case, then the matrix B is uniquely determined by A, and is called the (multiplicative) inverse of A, denoted by A−1. Matrix inversion is the process of finding the matrix B that satisfies the prior equation for a given invertible matrix A.

Matrix (mathematics)

In mathematics, a matrix (plural matrices) is a rectangular array or table of numbers, symbols, or expressions, arranged in rows and columns, which is used to represent a mathematical object or a property of such an object. For example, is a matrix with two rows and three columns. This is often referred to as a "two by three matrix", a " matrix", or a matrix of dimension . Without further specifications, matrices represent linear maps, and allow explicit computations in linear algebra.

Definite matrix

In mathematics, a symmetric matrix with real entries is positive-definite if the real number is positive for every nonzero real column vector where is the transpose of . More generally, a Hermitian matrix (that is, a complex matrix equal to its conjugate transpose) is positive-definite if the real number is positive for every nonzero complex column vector where denotes the conjugate transpose of Positive semi-definite matrices are defined similarly, except that the scalars and are required to be positive or zero (that is, nonnegative).

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