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Publication# Impact of beam-coupling impedance on the Schottky spectrum of bunched beam

Abstract

The Schottky monitors of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) can be used for non-invasive beam diagnostics to estimate various bunch characteristics, such as tune, chromaticity, bunch profile or synchrotron frequency distribution. However, collective effects, in particular beam -coupling impedance, can significantly affect Schottky spectra when large bunch charges are involved. In such conditions, the available interpretation methods are difficult to apply directly to the measured spectra, thus preventing the extraction of beam and machine parameters, which is possible for lower bunch charges. To study the impact of impedance on such spectra, we introduce a method for building Schottky spectra from macro -particle simulations performed with the PyHEADTAIL code, applied to LHC beam conditions. In this case, the use of a standard Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) algorithm to recover the spectral content of the beam becomes computationally intractable memory -wise, because of the relatively short bunch length compared to the large revolution period. To circumvent this difficulty, a semi -analytical method was developed to efficiently compute the Fourier transform. The simulated Schottky spectrum is then compared against theoretical formulas and measurements of Schottky signals previously obtained with lead ion beams in the LHC where impedance effects are expected to be limited. Furthermore, this study provides preliminary interpretations of the impact of beam -coupling impedance on proton Schottky spectra by incorporating longitudinal and transverse resonator -like impedance models into the simulations. A theoretical framework is also introduced for the case of the longitudinal impedance, allowing the extension of the existing theoretical formalism.

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Input impedance

The input impedance of an electrical network is the measure of the opposition to current (impedance), both static (resistance) and dynamic (reactance), into a load network that is external to the electrical source network. The input admittance (the reciprocal of impedance) is a measure of the load network's propensity to draw current. The source network is the portion of the network that transmits power, and the load network is the portion of the network that consumes power.

Fourier transform

In physics and mathematics, the Fourier transform (FT) is a transform that converts a function into a form that describes the frequencies present in the original function. The output of the transform is a complex-valued function of frequency. The term Fourier transform refers to both this complex-valued function and the mathematical operation. When a distinction needs to be made the Fourier transform is sometimes called the frequency domain representation of the original function.

Large Hadron Collider

The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is the world's largest and highest-energy particle collider. It was built by the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) between 1998 and 2008 in collaboration with over 10,000 scientists and hundreds of universities and laboratories, as well as more than 100 countries. It lies in a tunnel in circumference and as deep as beneath the France–Switzerland border near Geneva. The first collisions were achieved in 2010 at an energy of 3.

Ontological neighbourhood

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