**Êtes-vous un étudiant de l'EPFL à la recherche d'un projet de semestre?**

Travaillez avec nous sur des projets en science des données et en visualisation, et déployez votre projet sous forme d'application sur GraphSearch.

Concept# Control volume

Résumé

In continuum mechanics and thermodynamics, a control volume (CV) is a mathematical abstraction employed in the process of creating mathematical models of physical processes. In an inertial frame of reference, it is a fictitious region of a given volume fixed in space or moving with constant flow velocity through which the continuum (gas, liquid or solid) flows. The closed surface enclosing the region is referred to as the control surface.
At steady state, a control volume can be thought of as an arbitrary volume in which the mass of the continuum remains constant. As a continuum moves through the control volume, the mass entering the control volume is equal to the mass leaving the control volume. At steady state, and in the absence of work and heat transfer, the energy within the control volume remains constant. It is analogous to the classical mechanics concept of the free body diagram.
Overview
Typically, to understand how a given physical law applies to the system under

Source officielle

Cette page est générée automatiquement et peut contenir des informations qui ne sont pas correctes, complètes, à jour ou pertinentes par rapport à votre recherche. Il en va de même pour toutes les autres pages de ce site. Veillez à vérifier les informations auprès des sources officielles de l'EPFL.

Publications associées

Chargement

Personnes associées

Chargement

Unités associées

Chargement

Concepts associés

Chargement

Cours associés

Chargement

Séances de cours associées

Chargement

Publications associées (10)

Chargement

Chargement

Chargement

Personnes associées (1)

Concepts associés (3)

Équations de Navier-Stokes

thumb|Léonard de Vinci : écoulement dans une fontaine
En mécanique des fluides, les équations de Navier-Stokes sont des équations aux dérivées partielles non linéaires qui décrivent le mouvement des f

Loi de conservation

vignette|redresse|Emmy Noether est une mathématicienne allemande dont le théorème explique le lien fondamental entre la symétrie et les lois de conservation.
En physique, une loi de conservation expri

Thermodynamique

La thermodynamique est la branche de la physique qui traite de la dépendance des propriétés physiques des corps à la température, des phénomènes où interviennent des échanges thermiques, et des transf

Unités associées (1)

Cours associés (23)

ENV-221: Hydrology for engineers

"Hydrology for Engineers" is an introduction to the study of floods, droughts and a fair distribution of water. The course will introduce basic hydrologic concepts and methods: probability and statistics, surface and subsurface hydrological processes

ME-341: Heat and mass transfer

This course covers fundamentals of heat transfer and applications to practical problems. Emphasis will be on developing a physical and analytical understanding of conductive, convective, and radiative heat transfer.

ME-469: Nano-scale heat transfer

In this course we study heat transfer (and energy conversion) from a microscopic perspective. This allows us to understand why classical laws (i.e. Fourier Law) are what they are and what are their limits of validity . We will then discuss emerging opprotunities in nanoscale devices.

Christophe Ancey, Valentin Métraux, François Mettra

The idea of stochastic sediment transport models emerged in the 1930s, notably with the doctoral work of Hans A. Einstein (1936). Einstein's seminal work gave impulse to several stochastic models, which usually led to thin-tailed or bounded distributions for the particle-transport rate. Experimental observations together with field surveys suggest that particle-transport rate exhibits frequent and large fluctuations, in particular at low flow rates (i.e., when the bottom shear just exceeds the threshold of incipient motion), which cannot be described using classic distributions used so far for modelling bedload transport (e.g., Hamamori's distribution). The existence of these large and frequent fluctuations could offer a wide field of applications to fractional-derivative theory. Alternative approaches exist as well: in this talk, we explore the potentialities of a birth-death Markov model to model sediment transport within a fixed volume of control. Under steady-uniform-flow conditions, the model predicts that the number of moving particles inside the control volume follows a negative binomial distribution. Although this probability distribution does not enter the family of heavy-tailed distributions, it may give rise to large and frequent fluctuations. We investigate the consequences of these fluctuations on bed dynamics, more especially on the features (growth rate and probability distribution) of nascent bedforms that develop on initially planar beds as a result of intermittent bedload transport.

2010Landslide-generated waves, also called impulse waves, occur as a result of the intrusion of landslides (such as rock falls, debris flows, and avalanches) into bodies of water (such as lakes, reservoirs, and seas). The objective of this thesis was to study the momentum transfer from the slide material to the body of water, in order to develop a better understanding of how the slide material's properties affect the wave generation and to discover alternative modeling approaches to existing empirical equations.
Previous experimental studies have usually used blocks and granular materials to mimic natural landslides. However, many landslides in real worlds have been idealized as viscoplastic fluids in theoretical and numerical studies. No studies have used viscoplastic material in experimental studies of landslide-generated waves. The originality of this thesis lies in the use of a viscoplastic material called Carbopol Ultrez 10, an artificial aqueous micro-gel whose rheological behavior can be described using the Herschel-Bulkley model. Carbopol's cohesive and deformable properties are different to both block and granular slides. Further, Carbopol is transparent and can easily be seeded with micro-seeding particles, so its velocity field can be measured using particle image velocimetry (PIV). As a comparison of Carbopol, I also used a granular material named polymer-water balls whose density is close to that of Carbopol. The investigations of this thesis are as follows:
I conducted two series of experiments. First, I observed waves generated by Carbopol, water balls, and mixtures of them using high-speed cameras, to investigate the role of slide material's properties in wave prediction. Second, I conducted PIV experiments with Carbopol to investigate the internal dynamic of slide-water interaction.
(1) I developed a theoretical model that combined the momentum conservation of twophase flow in a control volume (Zitti et al., 2016) and viscoplastic theory (Ancey et al., 2012). With the experimental results obtained from PIV measurements, I analyzed the drag force and hydrostatic force that act on stopping the sliding mass, and validated the theoretical model.
(2) I developed empirical equations using the dimensionless groups that emerged from the governing equations to quantify the wave characteristics (for example, maximum wave amplitude and height) as functions of the slide parameters. Using empirical equations, I compared the characteristics of waves generated by cohesive Carbopol and cohesionless water balls, and discussed the effect of slide cohesion on wave generation.
(3) Taking advantage of a purely data-driven approach that strictly relies on the dataset and does not need any physical constraints in advance, I applied an artificial neural network method to predict wave characteristics under complex configurations, such as dealing with an experimental dataset with several different slide materials (Carbopol, water balls, and mixtures of them).
(4) Using a panel data model called random coefficient model, I predicted the time series data of wave characteristics from the time series data of slide parameters on impact. Given the slide parameters on impact by the viscoplastic theory, the temporal wave characteristics were quantified from the parameters of the slide material at the initial stage (at rest on the slope and then starting to move).

Aude Billard, Nadia Barbara Figueroa Fernandez, Seyed Sina Mirrazavi Salehian, Yonadav Goldwasser Shavit

In this paper, we propose an asymptotically stable joint-space dynamical system that captures desired behaviors in joint-space while stably converging towards a task-space attractor. To encode joint-space behaviors while meeting the stability criteria, the dynamical system is constructed as a Linear Parameter Varying (LPV) system combining different motor synergies, and we provide a method for learning these synergy matrices from demonstrations. Specifically, we use dimensionality reduction to find a low-dimensional embedding space for modulating joint synergies, and then estimate the parameters of the corresponding synergies by solving a convex semi-definite optimization problem that minimizes the joint velocity prediction error from the demonstrations. Our proposed approach is empirically validated on a variety of motions.

2018Séances de cours associées (71)