Concept# Théorie de l'apprentissage

Résumé

Une théorie de l'apprentissage vise à expliquer le phénomène d'acquisition des connaissances.
Voir aussi

- Constructivisme
- Inférence bayésienne
- Théorème de Cox-Jaynes
- Apprentissage automatique
- Théorie de l'apprentissage social

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CS-411: Digital education

This course addresses the relationship between specific technological features and the learners' cognitive processes. It also covers the methods and results of empirical studies on this topic: do student actually learn due to technologies?

DH-405: Foundations of digital humanities

This course gives an introduction to the fundamental concepts and methods of the Digital Humanities, both from a theoretical and applied point of view. The course introduces the Digital Humanities circle of processing and interpretation, from data acquisition to new understandings.

LEARN-600: Theoretical Foundations of Learning Sciences 1

How do people learn and how can we support learning? This is part 1 of a two-part course that provides an overview of major theoretical perspectives that attempt to describe how learning works, and serves as an introduction to interpreting education as a means of designing learning environments.

Concepts associés (12)

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Constructivisme (psychologie)

Le constructivisme, théorie de l'apprentissage, a été développée, entre autres, par Piaget, dès 1923, face au béhaviorisme qui, d’après lui, limitait trop l’apprentissage à l’association stimulus-rép

Psychologie de l'éducation

La psychologie de l'éducation est, selon l'APA (American Psychological Association), la discipline qui s'intéresse au développement, à l'évaluation et à l'application :

- des théories de l'apprentiss

Éducation

vignette|270px|Moyen mnémotechnique mis à disposition des enfants visitant le Field Museum de Chicago leur permettant d'apprendre les pays formant l'Asie et leurs contours géographiques.
L’éducation

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Since the birth of Information Theory, researchers have defined and exploited various information measures, as well as endowed them with operational meanings. Some were born as a "solution to a problem", like Shannon's Entropy and Mutual Information. Others were the fruit of generalisation and the mathematical genius of bright minds like Rényi, Csizsár and Sibson. These powerful objects allow us to manipulate probabilities intuitively and seem always to be somehow connected to concrete settings in communication, coding or estimation theory. A common theme is: take a problem in one of these areas, try to control (upper or lower-bound) the expected value of some function of interest (often, probabilities of error) and, with enough work, an information measure appears as a fundamental limit of the problem. The most striking example of this is in Shannon's seminal paper in 1948: his purpose was to characterise the smallest possible expected length of a uniquely decodable encoding that compresses the realisations of a random variable. As he brilliantly proved, the smallest expected length one can hope for is the Entropy of the random variable. In establishing this connection, another quantity needed to be implicitly controlled: the Kraft's sum of the code. Seemingly unrelated before, these three objects joined forces in harmony to provide a beautiful and fundamental result. But why are they related? The answer seems to be: duality. Duality is an abstract notion commonly used in linear algebra and functional analysis. It has been expanded and generalised over the years. Several incarnations have been discovered throughout mathematics. One particular instance of this involves vector spaces: given two vector spaces and a "duality pairing" one can jump from one space to the other (its dual) through Legendre-Fenchel-like transforms. In the most common settings in Information Theory, the two spaces and the pairing are, respectively: 1) the space of (probability)measures defined on X; 2) the space of bounded functions defined on X; 3) the Lebesgue integral of the function (the expected value of the function if the measure is a probability measure). Once these are set, Legendre-Fenchel-like transforms allow us to connect a) a functional acting on the space described in 1), b) a functional acting on the space described in 2) and the anchor point is c) the (expected) value described in 3).These three pieces (a), b) and c)) represent the actors of many of the results provided in Information Theory. Once they are found, one usually bounds the functional described in b) and obtains a bound connecting the expected value and the functional of measures (e.g., an information measure). Going back to Shannon's result, fixed a random variable (and thus, a probability measure) and selected the function to be the length of a code: the functional a) is the Shannon Entropy of the source; the functional b) is the Kraft sum of the code; the pairing c) is the expected length of the code. We explore this connection and this pattern throughout the thesis. We will see how it can be found in notable results like Coding Theorems for one-to-one codes, Campbell's Coding Theorem, Arikan's Guessing Theorem, Fano-like and Transportation-Cost Inequalities and so on. Moreover, unearthing the pattern allows us to generalise it to other information measures and apply the technique in a variety of fields, including Learning Theory, Estimation Theory and Hypothesis Testing.

Denis Gillet, Anh Vu Nguyen Ngoc, Stéphane Sire

The role of evaluation in software development has been well established. It is of first importance in usability engineering. Over the last years, many interactive systems have benefited from user evaluation, including e- learning applications. As with other interactive systems, designers of Web- based training environments can benefit from the results of an evaluation to detect the strengths and weaknesses of their application, and to prepare the next version. However, it is not obvious to evaluate educational software. It requires the transposition of the usability concepts of effectiveness, efficiency and satisfaction to a domain that is at the crossroads of multiple sub-domains: interactive systems, collaborative work and learning theories. In this article, we present a use-case of the evaluation of a flexible learning environment for hands on experiments. The first part of the article presents the flexible environment proposed to engineering students at the Swiss federal institute of Technology. It also defines the objectives of a user evaluation according to some of the design choices we made. In this evaluation, we have two types of objectives. First, we want to check if the flexibility permitted by a Web-based training environment is really put into practice by the students, if it has some effects on the place and the time at which they choose to work. Second, we want to check if a new component that we have introduced in our environment for sharing and commenting experimental results, the eJournal, really supports the flexible learning scenario and enhances collaborative learning. The second part of the article examines some of the most common evaluation methods used in interactive system design and in Computer Supported Cooperative Work. For each of these methods, such as checklists, questionnaires, log analysis and interviews, we describe how they could contribute to meet our evaluation objectives as defined in the first part. Finally, the third part of the article reports on our user evaluation of the flexible environment described in the first part. This reports describes first the evaluation methodology that we have selected. It describes the evaluation tools selected among the tools introduced in the second part, and the adaptations we made to fit our purposes. In particular, it describes some of the constraints imposed by experimenting with a panel of students pursuing their academic year at the same time. The reports then give some of the results of the evaluation we made with 30 students in automatic control using our prototype during the winter semester 2002/2003. The contribution of the article is to expose, through a use-case, the challenges of the evaluation of a Web-based training environment for sharing laboratory experiments. We think this is a necessary step towards the development of standard practices for evaluating e-learning applications.

2003Séances de cours associées (7)

The technological advances of the past years have impressively demonstrated that the digital age is no longer just a science fiction vision of the future - we are in the midst of it. The digital transformation is affecting many areas of our lives, including the educational system. For instance, recent years have shown an increased adoption of educational robotics activities in classrooms. Although educators and researchers have acknowledged the potential of educational robotics, further efforts are needed to effectively integrate them into formal education. As for any kind of educational tool, one key factor for the successful integration of educational robots in classrooms is the proper alignment of such tools with the classroom activities and vice versa. In practice, however, this may pose challenges. On the one hand, it still appears that only few educators have already developed the required know-how allowing them to leverage educational robotics for classroom activities. On the other hand, the issue of poor alignment may already arise in the design stages of educational robotics tools, due to the limited experience of developers with the pedagogy and learning theories related to such tools. This thesis, therefore, seeks to study how instructional alignment can be attained in the context of educational robotics. To this end, an alignment framework will be devised aimed at supporting developers in the design of educational robotics tools, as well as educators in the design and implementation of classroom activities involving educational robotics. In this context, we will introduce the notion of Educational Robotics Learning Systems (ERLS), a model that conceptualizes alignment for educational robotics activities. In different studies, we will illustrate how the devised alignment framework can be used to guide the development of educational robotics tools and activities. The PaPL and CreroBot projects will consider the alignment issue from the developers' perspective. The former is concerned with the development of a tangible programming interface based on accessible materials such as paper and cardboard. The latter will then expand these ideas to the development of a do-it-yourself educational robot. In two other projects, we will then illustrate how the devised framework can be used to guide the development of educational robotics activities. We will first discuss the Thymio lawnmower mission, an activity devised to foster the development of students' computational thinking competencies. Finally, we will present the Thymio Escape Game, an immersive learning activity that has been inspired by escape room experiences. The findings from these studies are intended to make a contribution to the field of educational robotics, specifically by addressing the global research question of this thesis: How can instructional alignment be attained for educational robotics activities?