Concept

# Équilibre dynamique

Résumé
In chemistry, a dynamic equilibrium exists once a reversible reaction occurs. Substances transition between the reactants and products at equal rates, meaning there is no net change. Reactants and products are formed at such a rate that the concentration of neither changes. It is a particular example of a system in a steady state. In physics, concerning thermodynamics, a closed system is in thermodynamic equilibrium when reactions occur at such rates that the composition of the mixture does not change with time. Reactions do in fact occur, sometimes vigorously, but to such an extent that changes in composition cannot be observed. Equilibrium constants can be expressed in terms of the rate constants for reversible reactions. In a new bottle of soda, the concentration of carbon dioxide in the liquid phase has a particular value. If half of the liquid is poured out and the bottle is sealed, carbon dioxide will leave the liquid phase at an ever-decreasing rate, and the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in the gas phase will increase until equilibrium is reached. At that point, due to thermal motion, a molecule of CO2 may leave the liquid phase, but within a very short time another molecule of CO2 will pass from the gas to the liquid, and vice versa. At equilibrium, the rate of transfer of CO2 from the gas to the liquid phase is equal to the rate from liquid to gas. In this case, the equilibrium concentration of CO2 in the liquid is given by Henry's law, which states that the solubility of a gas in a liquid is directly proportional to the partial pressure of that gas above the liquid. This relationship is written as where K is a temperature-dependent constant, P is the partial pressure, and c is the concentration of the dissolved gas in the liquid. Thus the partial pressure of CO2 in the gas has increased until Henry's law is obeyed. The concentration of carbon dioxide in the liquid has decreased and the drink has lost some of its fizz. Henry's law may be derived by setting the chemical potentials of carbon dioxide in the two phases to be equal to each other.
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