Concept

Alcyne

Résumé
thumb|200px|Exemples d’alcynes. Les alcynes sont des hydrocarbures possédant une insaturation caractérisée par la présence d’une triple liaison carbone-carbone. Les deux carbones sont hybridés sp. La triple liaison est la combinaison de deux liaisons π et d’une liaison σ. La densité électronique de la molécule est répartie de façon cylindrique le long de la liaison C-C. On dit que l’on a affaire à un alcyne vrai ou à un alcyne terminal si R ou R' est un hydrogène. Les alcynes, ou hydrocarbures acétyléniques, ont pour formule générale CnH2n-2, et sont caractérisés par la présence dans leur molécule d’une triple liaison et d’une coexistence possible de doubles liaisons. Nomenclature Les alcynes se nomment comme les alcènes correspondants, en remplaçant la terminaison « -ène » par la terminaison « -yne ». Hors nomenclature IUPAC, le premier terme, C2H2, est également appelé acétylène. Les alcynes linéaires ont pour formule générale CnH2n-2. Exemples :
  • éthyne (acétylène,
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Publications associées (81)

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Palladium Catalysed Intramolecular Carbo-oxygenation of Propargylic Amines to Access 1,2-Amino Alcohols and alpha-Amino Ketones via in situ Tether Formation

Phillip Gulliver Dominic Greenwood

a-Amino ketones and 1,2-amino alcohols are important structural motifs in organic chemistry, that can be observed in natural products, pharmaceutically and bioactive compounds. For these reasons, they constitute privileged targets for the development of new and effective synthetic methods. The dual-functionalisation of unsaturated carbon-carbon bonds is a powerful approach to access these crucial motifs. In this context, Pd catalysis has been comprehensively investigated and has consistently demonstrated its capability. Methods enabling the concomitant formation of a carbon– heteroatom and a carbon–carbon bond are highly valuable, but the challenges of intermolecular reactions have led to the development of tether systems that require additional steps for their introduction and removal. In situ tethering strategies have previously been explored within the Waser group to circumvent these limitations. This approach relies on a one-pot, three component, Pd catalysed carboetherification or amination reaction, leading to rapidly increase in complexity of simple substrates. So far, the in situ methodologies developed by the Waser group have focused on the functionalisation of alkenes from allylic amines and alcohols. In this regard, the goal of my PhD was to expand the in situ tethering methodologies established within the Waser group, to the synthesis of a-amino ketones and 1,2-amino alcohols. Specifically, my focus was on the formation a trifluoromethyl hemiaminal with a propargylic amine and using the resulting aminal to direct the oxyalkynylation and oxyarylation of the alkyne substrate via a Pd catalysed transformation. Upon optimisation, the reaction of a protected terminal propargylamine, trifluoroacetaldehyde ethyl hemiacetal and silylbromoacetylene using a Pd0 complex with DPEPhos as the catalytic system and Cs2CO3 as the base gave the desired oxazolidine alkenes in high yields and E:Z selectivity. Substrates with substitution on the terminal position and at the propargylic required a change of ligand and base. The transformation was broadly tolerant towards substitution on the nitrogen and the alkyne. An oxyarylative variant was also developed, using Ruphos as ligand, and worked well with a range of iodoarene partners. The obtained oxazolidines could be conveniently orthogonally deprotected to access the a-amino ketone and terminal alkyne; the hydrogenation of the unsaturated oxazolidines has allowed access to 1,2-amino alcohol scaffolds and the application of gold catalysis converted the enyne-oxazolidine system into trisubstituted silyl furans. The identification of a sideproduct of the oxyalkynylation process led to the development of a carboxy-alkynylation reaction using a "CO2" unit derived from the carbonate base. Optimisation established CsHCO3 to the best base/"CO2" source, using DPEPhos as ligand. This transformation gave convenient access to diverse library of cyclic carbamates. Work is ongoing to achieve an enantioselective oxyarylation using chiral phosphine ligands. The asymmetric synthesis of oxazolidines, followed by the diastereoselective alkene hydrogenation and subsequent tether removal would allow the stereodivergent access to interesting diarylalkyl-1,2- amino alcohols. Most recently, the product was synthesised in 66% yield, with 66%ee using commercially available Trost ligand.
EPFL2020

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Cours associés (18)
CH-120: Advanced general chemistry II
Acquisition des notions fondamentales liées à la réactivité des molécules organiques, identification de la structure de petites molécules organiques au moyen des techniques de spectrométrie de masse, spectroscopie infra-rouge et résonance magnétique nucléaire.
CH-416: Chemical biology of cell imaging
This course will introduce basic concepts of fluorescence spectroscopy and microscopy applied to the observation of biological systems. The course will focus on the design, preparation and implementation of small-molecule and protein-based probes.
CH-223: Organometallic chemistry
Basic organometallic chemistry will be covered in this course.
  1. Structure and bonding in organometallic compounds.
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