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Concept# Pont

Résumé

vignette|Pont permettant le passage de la ligne C du métro de Rotterdam, à Capelle-sur-l'Yssel (Pays-Bas).
vignette|Pont sur la rivière Moyka à Saint-Pétersbourg, Russie
Un pont est un ouvrage d'art qui permet de franchir un obstacle naturel ou artificiel (dépression, cours d'eau, voie de communication, vallée, ravin, canyon) en passant par-dessus. Le franchissement supporte le passage d'humains et de véhicules dans le cas d'un pont routier, ou d'eau dans le cas d'un aqueduc. On désigne également comme écoduc ou écopont (par exemple : les écuroducs), des passages construits ou « réservés » dans un milieu aménagé, pour permettre aux espèces animales, végétales, fongiques, etc. de traverser des obstacles construits par l'être humain ou résultant de ses activités.
Les ponts font partie de la famille des ouvrages d'art. Leur construction relève du génie civil.
vignette|Pont en pierre près d’Audlem, dans le Cheshire (Royaume-Uni).
vignette|Gateshead Millennium Bridge de Gateshead (Anglete

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CIVIL-330: Bridge design

Introduction à la conception et au dimensionnement des ponts routiers en construction mixte, en béton armé et précontraint. Ce cours porte sur le choix du type de pont, des principales dimensions des éléments structuraux, du matériau, du mode de construction et sur les exigences à satisfaire.

CIVIL-430: Concrete bridges

Ce cours traite les principaux aspects de la conception et du dimensionnement des ponts en béton armé et précontraint. L'accent est mis sur les ponts poutres. Etude des aspects suivants : optimisation du comportement structural, dimensionnement, dynamique des structures et technologie des matériaux.

CIVIL-414: Advanced design of concrete structures

The course deals with the design of precast reinforced concrete structures, both for bridges and for buildings. The course is focused in learning by projects supplemented by some lectures by the teachers.The students will work in groups to design a precast structure.

Concepts associés (55)

Pont en treillis

vignette|Pont Bailey sur la Meurthe, France. Pont provisoire en treillis, à mise en place très rapide.
Un pont en treillis, pont en poutre en treillis ou pont-treillis est un pont dont les poutres la

Pont à haubans

Les ponts à haubans sont un type de pont dont le tablier est suspendu par des câbles, eux-mêmes étant soutenus par des pylônes.
thumb|Le pont de l'Iroise à Brest.
Technique générale
Con

Pont suspendu

Un pont suspendu à câbles porteurs est un ouvrage métallique dont le tablier est attaché par l'intermédiaire de tiges de suspension verticales à un certain nombre de câbles flexibles ou de chaînes do

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Séances de cours associées (128)

It has been known for more than 150 years that action effects in bridges due to traffic action are higher than it has to be expected for purely static loads. In the design of road bridges, this difference is considered by multiplying static traffic loads with a "dynamic amplification factor". The amplification factors defined in codes are based on dynamic load tests on existing bridges. Despite of hundreds of tests in several countries, experimental investigation has not given satisfactory explanation of the observed phenomena, which has resulted in marked differences between amplification factors defined in different codes. This is due to the fact that the core of the matter – the dynamic interaction between vehicles and bridges– is a complex mechanical problem. Based on a detailed analysis it is shown in the introduction, that it can also be attributed to the fact, that the experimental investigation is more part of the problem than its solution. This thesis aims at getting a solid and systematic grounding in the problem using theoretical analysis. The centre of attention is the question, which importance dynamic phenomena have in those scenarios which are effectively relevant for the structural safety of a bridge. All scenarios are considered that justify an amplification factor, and not only dynamic vehicle – bridge interaction. The structural safety evaluation of a bridge includes the verification of the ultimate and the fatigue limit state. Accordingly, this thesis distinguishes between the interaction at ultimate limit state, for which inelastic bridge behaviour is assumed, and the interaction at service limit state with linear elastic bridge behaviour. The structural analysis of a bridge shows in addition, that the elements of the bridge deck differ considerably from the main girders: For the elements of the deck – i.e. primarily for the deck slab – dynamic interaction is of little importance, and amplification of action effects is essentially due to amplification of traffic action. In the case of the main girders, action effects are additionally amplified due to the oscillations of the structure. In order to analyse interaction at service limit state in detail, very sophisticated models are required, which do not only cover all relevant eigenmodes of the bridge but also the non-linear, dynamic behaviour of heavy vehicles and the precise road surface profile. Design and analysis of such models are mostly conferred to specialists in numeric analysis and structural dynamics. In the contrary, this thesis aims at capturing the fundamental connections by simple models, which facilitates the identification of the key parameters and the interpretation of their influence. The most important result of the analysis of vehicle – bridge interaction at service limit state is that the amplification factor is most influenced by the weight and the number of vehicles on a bridge. Whereas the amplification is negligible for high vehicle loads, tests with relatively lightweight vehicles on long bridges lead to a significant over-estimation of amplification factors. Furthermore it is shown that neither the span nor the natural frequency of a bridge is appropriate for fixing the amplification factor for a particular bridge and safety verification, respectively. It has been observed in dynamic load tests that deflection measurements consistently result in higher amplification factors than strain measurements. This phenomenon has been known for more than fifty years, but no explanation has been given so far. In this thesis an explanation is proposed and it is shown that deflection measurements result in an over-estimation of amplification factors. Similar considerations lead to a proposal for a more suitable application of amplification factors in the verification of shear force. A completely new approach is chosen for the analysis of vehicle – bridge interaction at ultimate limit state. The effective behaviour at rupture is taken into account, which necessitates first to deal with the influence of loading velocity on material strength. It is shown that only for impact loading of deck slabs due to dynamic tyre forces a minor increase in concrete strength can be expected. An important prerequisite for the understanding of dynamic behaviour at ultimate limit state is the "gravity effect", which is shown to cause massive reduction in the dissipation capacity of a structure. The determinant criterion with inelastic behaviour is deformability and not stiffness. Simple models are used to study the influence of deformability and gravity effect in the most important cases of dynamically amplified traffic action. The results show, under which conditions the dynamic amplification of action effects can be compensated by plastic deformation of the structure without causing its failure. If the steel yield stress is already attained due to the static part of traffic action, compensation of the dynamic part is only assured if the rupture behaviour is characterised by strain hardening. A simple condition of equilibrium shows that dynamic amplification due to centrifugal forces cannot be absorbed by deformations of the structure. However, rupture behaviour characterised by significant deformation causes a delay in the failure of the structure, which can be sufficient to prevent the definitive rupture anyway, depending on the scenario. In addition to these reflections, it is attempted to determine the importance of shear failures with respect to flexural failures, in order to estimate the probability of this comparatively brittle failure mechanism. In view of the application of the findings, the relevant results are synthesized and a concept for the safety verification accounting for dynamic traffic action is developed. The concept is based on the distinction between verifications at ultimate and service limit state on the one hand, and the separate treatment of elements of the deck and main girders on the other hand. This differentiation allows integrating risk based considerations using explicit hazard scenarios. An important point in the application of the findings is the recommendation to emphasize the benefit of good road surface evenness in the maintenance of structures. A necessary complement in establishing the recommended amplification factors is the detailed analysis of the reaction of vehicles to road surface irregularities. The dynamic tyre forces for different vehicle and axle types, respectively, are analysed, since the findings indicate that the amplification of tyre forces is much more important in fixing amplification factors than the dynamic behaviour of bridges. The investigations clearly show that higher axle loads imply lower amplification factors, and that the maximum amplification of axle forces in axle groups never occurs simultaneously for all axles. The thesis is finished by an annexe including introductions to the dynamic behaviour of vehicles and bridges as well as to the modelling of traffic loads and road surface irregularities. In addition to an extensive review of the state of the art, these introductions constitute an important basis of the work and facilitate understanding of the calculations in the main part.

The management of a network of existing road bridges involves interventions in order to maintain safety and the priority of these interventions is often determined by safety criteria. During the evaluation of safety, the dynamic effect of traffic actions is considered using equivalent static loads determined by multiplying the effect calculated using traffic load models by a dynamic amplification factor. During the evaluation of a deck slab, the application of inappropriate dynamic amplification factors could have significant financial implications, all the more since the local dynamic effects of overloaded trucks are determinant for this type of structural element. Dynamic amplification factors defined in codes have usually been derived from the measurement of global traffic action effects in the main structural elements of bridges. Unfortunately, local dynamic effects in deck slabs have not been studied in detail until now. A better understanding of the dynamic behaviour of deck slabs will lead to the definition of more accurate dynamic amplification factors and avoid the use of values that are too conservative. The behaviour of deck slabs of six typical Swiss highway bridges has been simulated in order to study their dynamic response during the passage of trucks. The structural arrangement of the deck slab was different for each of the six bridges. A parametric study was based on the simulation of various scenarios involving the passage of trucks for various combinations of speed, path and road surface roughness. Deck slab response was obtained by numerical simulation based on models of the bridge, truck and road surface. This system was resolved using a prediction - correction algorithm that considers the dynamic interaction between a bridge and trucks. Dynamic amplification factors were subsequently calculated from strains and deflections obtained from independent static and dynamic simulations. The simulation of numerous scenarios enabled the evaluation of the influence of different parameters on the dynamic response of a deck slab: The road surface roughness was found to be one of the most important parameters, with an increase in roughness leading to an increase in dynamic amplification factors. An overloaded truck produces a lower dynamic amplification factor in a deck slab than an empty truck. The truck speed influences the dynamic interaction, but a clear relationship between speed and dynamic amplification factor could not be identified. The maximum dynamic amplification factor does not vary significantly from one point to another over a deck slab in a girder bridge. The structural arrangement of a deck slab in a girder bridge has little influence on dynamic amplification factors. Overall, the different deck slabs on the girder bridges studied were all equally sensitive to the dynamic effects of road traffic. In many cases considered for the framed slab bridge, the maximum dynamic amplification factor was found to occur over the supports. For such bridges, the sensitivity of the deck slab to the dynamic effects of road traffic is not uniform. Finally, two approaches to evaluating deck slabs of existing road bridges are proposed. The first approach is only applicable in certain situations and involves a simplified evaluation using an updated traffic load model and a dynamic amplification factor. In situations where a simplified evaluation is not applicable, the second approach is to evaluate a deck slab using numerical or experimental analyses.

João Miguel De Oliveira Durães Alves Martins

Safety assessments of road bridges to braking events combine the braking force, acting along the longitudinal axis of the deck, with a vertical load that accounts for the vertical component of the traffic action. In modern design standards the vertical load models result from probabilistic calibration procedures targeting predefined return periods. On the contrary, the braking force was derived from a deterministic characterization of the vehicle configurations and of the braking process. Therefore, the return period of the braking force is unclear and may not be consistent with that of the vertical load model. Significant deviations from the target return period might lead to either uneconomical decisions, e.g. uncalled-for retrofitting interventions, or to inaccurate structural safety verifications. This thesis presents an original stochastic model to compute site-specific values of the braking force as a function of the return period. The developed stochastic model takes into account the length of the bridge deck and its dynamic properties for vibrations in the longitudinal direction, as well as different sources of randomness related to braking events, all of which comply with real-world measurements, including: - vehicle configurations, resorting to a time-history of crossing vehicles; - driver response times, randomly generated from probability distributions defined in the scope of this project; - deceleration profiles of the vehicles, resampled from catalogues of realistic deceleration profiles. The stochastic model uses Monte Carlo simulation of braking events and computes the maximum of the dynamic response of the bridge to each event. The computed maxima are collected in an empirical distribution function of the braking force. In the end, the model returns the quantile of this distribution that is suitable for safety assessments. This value of braking force is specific to the bridge given properties, to the traffic characteristics, and to the target return period. An additional novelty of this research work is the estimation of a rate of occurrence on motorways of braking events per vehicle-distance travelled. This parameter enables the estimation of the period of time covered by the simulations of braking events as a function of traffic flow and of the total number of braking events simulated. This step is fundamental to determine the value of the braking force that has a given return period. The braking forces returned by the stochastic model show significant dependence on the bridge length, the natural vibration period of the deck in the longitudinal direction, and the number of directions of traffic on the deck. On the contrary, damping ratio, traffic on the fast-lane or on weekends, and an augmentation of traffic in 20% show no substantial influence on the braking force. Moreover, the two motorway locations considered as sources of traffic data, Denges and Monte Ceneri, both in Switzerland, yielded braking forces with similar magnitudes, despite the significant differences in traffic characteristics. Finally, the results compiled served to calibrate an updated braking force that depends explicitly on the parameters found relevant, as well as on the return period so that it can be adopted by different standards even if they enforce different safety targets. This updated expression evidences that the braking forces of current codes tend to be conservative and, hence, can be improved based on the findings of this project.