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Concept# Dispersive prism

Résumé

In optics, a dispersive prism is an optical prism that is used to disperse light, that is, to separate light into its spectral components (the colors of the rainbow). Different wavelengths (colors) of light will be deflected by the prism at different angles. This is a result of the prism material's index of refraction varying with wavelength (dispersion). Generally, longer wavelengths (red) undergo a smaller deviation than shorter wavelengths (blue). The dispersion of white light into colors by a prism led Sir Isaac Newton to conclude that white light consisted of a mixture of different colors.
Triangular prisms are the most common type of dispersive prism. Other types of dispersive prism exist that have more than two optical interfaces; some of them combine refraction with total internal reflection.
How dispersive prisms work
Light changes speed as it moves from one medium to another (for example, from air into the glass of the prism). This speed change causes the li

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The course's objectivs are: Learning several advenced methods in experimental physics, and critical reading of experimental papers.

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Séances de cours associées (21)

Andre Al Haddad, Christoph Bostedt

The full radiation from the first harmonic of a synchrotron undulator (between 5 and 12 keV) at the Advanced Photon Source is microfocused using a stack of beryllium compound refractive lenses onto a fast-moving liquid jet and overlapped with a high-repetition-rate optical laser. This micro-focused geometry is used to perform efficient nonresonant X-ray emission spectroscopy on transient species using a dispersive spectrometer geometry. The overall usable flux achieved on target is above 1015 photons s−1 at 8 keV, enabling photoexcited systems in the liquid phase to be tracked with time resolutions from tens of picoseconds to microseconds, and using the full emission spectrum, including the weak valence-to-core signal that is sensitive to chemically relevant electronic properties.

2019João Pedro Alves Da Silva, Din Carmi, Alexander Zhiboedov

We use Mellin space dispersion relations together with Polyakov conditions to derive a family of sum rules for Conformal Field Theories (CFTs). The defining property of these sum rules is suppression of the contribution of the double twist operators. Firstly, we apply these sum rules to the Wilson-Fisher model in d = 4 - epsilon dimensions. We re-derive many of the known results to order epsilon(4) and we make new predictions. No assumption of analyticity down to spin 0 was made. Secondly, we study holographic CFTs. We use dispersive sum rules to obtain tree-level and one-loop anomalous dimensions. Finally, we briefly discuss the contribution of heavy operators to the sum rules in UV complete holographic theories.

Folding of the earth's crust, wrinkling of the skin, rippling of fruits, vegetables and leaves are all examples of natural structures that can have periodic buckling. Periodic buckling is also present in engineering structures such as compressed lattices, cylinders, thin films, stretchable electronics, tissues, etc., and the question is to understand how wave propagation is affected by such media. These structures possess geometrical nonlinearities and intrinsic dispersive sources, two conditions which are necessary to the formation of stable, nonlinear waves called solitary waves. These waves are particular since dispersive effects are balanced by nonlinear ones, such that the wave characteristics remain constant during the propagation, without any decay or modification in the shape. It is the goal of this thesis to demonstrate that solitary waves can propagate in periodic buckled structures. This manuscript focuses specifically on periodically buckled beams that require either guided or pinned supports for stability purposes. Buckling is initially considered statically and investigations are made on stability, role played by imperfections, shape of the deflection, etc. Linear dispersion is analyzed employing the semi-analytical dispersion equation, a new method that relates the frequency explicitly to the propagation constant of the acoustic branch. This allows the quantification of the different dispersive sources and it is found that in addition to periodicity, transverse inertial and coupling effects are playing a dominant role. Modeling the system by a mass-spring chain that accounts for additional dispersive sources, homogenization and asymptotic procedures lead to the double-dispersion Boussinesq equation. Varying the pre-compression level and the support type, the main result of this thesis is to show that four different waves are possible, namely compressive supersonic, rarefaction (tension) supersonic, compressive subsonic and rarefaction subsonic solitary waves. For high-amplitude waves, models based on strongly-nonlinear PDEs as the one modeling wave propagation in granular media (Hertz power law) are more appropriate and adaptation of existing work is done. Analytical model results are then compared to finite-element simulations of the structure and experiments, and are found in excellent agreement. In this thesis, in addition to the semi-analytical dispersion equation, two other new methods are proposed. For periodic structures by translation with additional glide symmetries (e.g. buckled beams), Bloch theorem is revisited and allows the use of a smaller unit cell. Advantages are dispersion curves easier to interpret and computational cost reduced. Finally, the last contribution of this thesis is the use of NURBS-based isogeometric analysis (IGA) to solve the extensible-elastica problem requiring at least C1-continuous basis functions, which was not possible before with classical finite-element methods. The formulation is found efficient to solve dynamic problems involving slender beams as buckling.