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Publication# An apparatus for pulsed ESR and DNP experiments using optically excited triplet states down to liquid helium temperatures

Arnaud Comment, Tim Rolf Eichhorn, Martin Haag, Sami Jannin, Jacques Van Der Klink

*Academic Press Inc Elsevier Science, *2013

Article

Article

Résumé

In standard Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (DNP) electron spins are polarized at low temperatures in a strong magnetic field and this polarization is transferred to the nuclear spins by means of a microwave field. To obtain high nuclear polarizations cryogenic equipment reaching temperatures of 1 K or below and superconducting magnets delivering several Tesla are required. This equipment strongly limits applications in nuclear and particle physics where beams of particles interact with the polarized nuclei, as well as in neutron scattering science. The problem can be solved using short-lived optically excited triplet states delivering the electron spin. The spin is polarized in the optical excitation process and both the cryogenic equipment and magnet can be simplified significantly. A versatile apparatus is described that allows to perform pulsed dynamic nuclear polarization experiments at X-band using short-lived optically excited triplet sates. The efficient He-4 flow cryostat that cools the sample to temperatures between 4 K and 300 K has an optical access with a coupling stage for a fiber transporting the light from a dedicated laser system. It is further designed to be operated on a neutron beam. A combined pulse ESR/DNP spectrometer has been developed to observe and characterize the triplet states and to perform pulse DNP experiments. The ESR probe is based on a dielectric ring resonator of 7 mm inner diameter that can accommodate cubic samples of 5 mm length needed for neutron experiments. NMR measurements can be performed during DNP with a coil integrated in the cavity. With the presented apparatus a proton polarization of 0.5 has been achieved at 0.3 T. (C) 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

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In dynamic nuclear polarisation (DNP), also called hyperpolarisation, a small amount of unpaired electron spins is added to the sample containing the nuclear spins, and the polarisation of these unpaired electron spins is transferred to the nuclear spins by means of a microwave field. Traditional DNP polarises the electron spin of stable paramagnetic centres by cooling down to low temperature and applying a strong magnetic field. Then weak continuous wave microwave fields are used to induce the polarisation transfer. Complicated cryogenic equipment and strong magnets can be avoided using short-lived photo-excited triplet states that are strongly aligned in the optical excitation process. However, a much faster transfer of the electron spin polarisation is needed and pulsed DNP methods like nuclear orientation via electron spin locking (NOVEL) and the integrated solid effect (ISE) are used. To describe the polarisation transfer with the strong microwave fields in NOVEL and ISE, the usual perturbation methods cannot be used anymore. In the previous paper, we presented a theoretical approach to calculate the polarisation transfer in ISE. In the present paper, the theory is applied to the system naphthalene-h(8) doped with pentacene-d(14) yielding the photo-excited triplet states and compared with experimental results.

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