**Êtes-vous un étudiant de l'EPFL à la recherche d'un projet de semestre?**

Travaillez avec nous sur des projets en science des données et en visualisation, et déployez votre projet sous forme d'application sur GraphSearch.

Publication# Sheath collapse at critical shallow angle due to kinetic effects

Résumé

The Debye sheath is known to vanish completely in magnetised plasmas for a sufficiently small electron gyroradius and small angle between the magnetic field and the wall. This angle depends on the current onto the wall. When the Debye sheath vanishes, there is still a potential drop between the wall and the plasma across the magnetic presheath. The magnetic field angle corresponding to the predicted sheath collapse is shown to be much smaller than previous estimates, scaling with the electron-ion mass ratio and not with the square root of the mass ratio. This is shown to be a consequence of the kinetic electron and finite ion orbit width effects, which are not captured by fluid models. The wall potential with respect to the bulk plasma at which the Debye sheath vanishes is calculated. Above this wall potential, it is possible that the Debye sheath will invert.

Official source

Cette page est générée automatiquement et peut contenir des informations qui ne sont pas correctes, complètes, à jour ou pertinentes par rapport à votre recherche. Il en va de même pour toutes les autres pages de ce site. Veillez à vérifier les informations auprès des sources officielles de l'EPFL.

Concepts associés

Chargement

Publications associées

Chargement

Concepts associés (11)

État plasma

thumb|upright|Le soleil est une boule de plasma.
thumb|Lampe à plasma.|168x168px
thumb|upright|Les flammes de haute température sont des plasmas.
L'état plasma est un état de la matière, tout comme l

Debye sheath

The Debye sheath (also electrostatic sheath) is a layer in a plasma which has a greater density of positive ions, and hence an overall excess positive charge, that balances an opposite negative charge

Champ magnétique

En physique, dans le domaine de l'électromagnétisme, le champ magnétique est une grandeur ayant le caractère d'un champ vectoriel, c'est-à-dire caractérisée par la donnée d'une norme, d’une directio

Publications associées (104)

Chargement

Chargement

Chargement

This thesis is concerned with the physics of suprathermal electrons in thermonuclear, magnetically confined plasmas. Under a variety of conditions, in laboratory as well as space plasmas, the electron velocity distribution function is not in thermodynamic equilibrium owing to internal or external drives. Accordingly, the distribution function departs from the equilibrium Maxwellian, and in particular generally develops a high-energy tail. In tokamak plasmas, this occurs especially as a result of injection of high-power electromagnetic waves, used for heating and current drive, as well as a result of internal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) instabilities. The physics of these phenomena is intimately tied to the properties and dynamics of this suprathermal electron population. This motivates the development of instrumental apparatus to measure its properties as well as of numerical codes to simulate their dynamics. Both aspects are reflected in this thesis work, which features advanced instrumental development and experimental measurements as well as numerical modeling. The instrumental development consisted of the complete design of a spectroscopic and tomographic system of four multi-detector hard X-ray (HXR) cameras for the TCV tokamak. The goal is to measure bremsstrahlung emission from suprathermal electrons with energies in the 10-300 keV range, with the ultimate aim of providing the first full tomographic reconstruction at these energies in a noncircular plasma. In particular, suprathermal electrons are generated in TCV by a high-power electron cyclotron heating (ECH) system and are also observed in the presence of MHD events, such as sawtooth oscillations and disruptive instabilities. This diagnostic employs state-of-the-art solid-state detectors and is optimized for the tight space requirements of the TCV ports. It features a novel collimator concept that combines compactness and flexibility as well as full digital acquisition of the photon pulses, greatly enhancing its potential for full spectral analysis in high-fluency scenarios. Additional flexibility is afforded by the possibility to rotate the orientation of two of the cameras, permitting the crucial comparison of radiation emitted perpendicular and parallel to the primary magnetic field. The design of the HXR system was optimized through an extensive iterative simulation process with the aid of tomographic reconstruction codes as well as quasilinear Fokker-Planck modeling of ECH-driven TCV plasmas. In parallel, the selection of the detectors for this system was performed through comprehensive laboratory testing of several candidate detectors available on the market. While the design was completed in the course of the thesis work, commissioning of the system has only commenced recently with one of the four cameras installed on TCV. The first preliminary results, discussed in the last part of this thesis, include basic parameter scans of ECH wave-plasma interaction and the investigation of the dynamic response of suprathermal electrons to modulated ECH. In addition, the cameras possess the novel ability to discriminate against very high-energy γ-ray radiation that cannot be collimated and must thus be excluded from spatial distribution analysis. A basic study of the conditions for γ-ray suppression was conducted in preparation for future experiments. The Fokker-Planck modeling tool used in this diagnostic development was acquired through a collaboration with CEA-Cadarache, initially with the primary motivation of studying the simultaneous plasma heating by 2nd and 3rd harmonic electron cyclotron waves that is uniquely possible on TCV. This motivated a dedicated study, both theoretical and experimental, of one particular instance of this combined heating, which became a second primary subject of this thesis work. The particular scenario studied here is one in which a single ECH frequency is resonant at both harmonics in the same plasma. The primary objective of this study was to determine whether a synergy effect existed, permitting an enhancement of the intrinsically weak 3rd harmonic absorption by the suprathermal electrons generated at the 2nd harmonic resonance. An associated question was whether this effect, if it existed, was experimentally measurable or was in fact observed in TCV. The simulations performed in the course of this study indeed predict the existence of such a synergy, although the answer to the second question was ultimately negative, at least within the current technical limitations. This study has proven nevertheless highly valuable in providing new insight into the complex velocity-space dynamics that govern ECH wave-particle interaction and suprathermal electron dynamics.

Controlled nuclear fusion could provide our society with a clean,
safe, and virtually inexhaustible source of electric power production.
The tokamak has proven to be capable of producing large amounts of
fusion reactions by confining magnetically the fusion fuel at
sufficiently high density and temperature, thus in the plasma state.
Because of turbulence, however, high temperature plasma reaches the
outermost region of the tokamak, the Scrape-Off Layer (SOL), which
features open magnetic field lines that channel particles and heat
into a dedicated region of the vacuum vessel. The plasma dynamics in
the SOL is crucial in determining the performance of tokamak devices,
and constitutes one of the greatest uncertainties in the success of
the fusion program. In the last few years, the development of
numerical codes based on reduced fluid models has provided a tool to
study turbulence in open field line configurations. In particular, the
GBS (Global Braginskii Solver) code has been developed at CRPP and is
used to perform global, three-dimensional, full-n, flux-driven
simulations of plasma turbulence in open field lines.
Reaching predictive capabilities is an outstanding challenge that
involves a proper treatment of the plasma-wall interactions at the end
of the field lines, to well describe the particle and energy losses.
This involves the study of plasma sheaths, namely the layers forming
at the interface between plasmas and solid surfaces, where the drift
and quasineutrality approximations break down. This is an
investigation of general interest, as sheaths are present in all
laboratory plasmas.
This thesis presents progress in the understanding of plasma sheaths
and their coupling with the turbulence in the main plasma. A kinetic
code is developed to study the magnetized plasma-wall transition
region and derive a complete set of analytical boundary conditions
that supply the sheath physics to fluid codes. These boundary
conditions are implemented in the GBS code and simulations of SOL
turbulence are carried out to investigate the importance of the sheath
in determining the equilibrium electric fields, intrinsic toroidal
rotation, and SOL width, in different limited configurations. For each
study carried out in this thesis, simple analytical models are
developed to interpret the simulation results and reveal the
fundamental mechanisms underlying the system dynamics. The
electrostatic potential appears to be determined by a combined effect
of sheath physics and electron adiabaticity. Intrinsic flows are
driven by the sheath, while turbulence provides the mechanism for
radial momentum transport. The position of the limiter can modify the
turbulence properties in the SOL, thus playing an important role in
setting the SOL width.

Understanding the physical mechanisms at play in the interaction between turbulent plasma and neutral particles is a crucial issue that we approach in this Thesis by using a first-principles self-consistent model of the tokamak periphery implemented in the GBS code. While the plasma is modeled by the drift-reduced two-fluid Braginskii equations, a kinetic model for the neutrals is developed, valid in short and in long mean free path scenarios. The model includes ionization, charge-exchange, recombination, and elastic collisional processes. The neutral kinetic equation is solved by using the method of characteristics. We identify the key elements determining the interaction between neutrals and the turbulent plasma focusing on a tokamak with a toroidal rail limiter on the high-field side equatorial midplane. For this purpose, we simulate the dynamics of the plasma and the neutrals in a domain that includes both the confined edge region and the scrape-off layer (SOL). It turns out that, in the considered plasma conditions, neither the fluctuations of the neutral moments, nor the friction between neutrals and the plasma impact the time-averaged plasma profiles significantly. Thanks to this study, we derive a simple model for the neutral-plasma interaction, which is helpful to identify and understand the principal physical processes at play in the tokamak periphery. By studying the dynamics of the neutral-plasma interplay along the magnetic field lines in the SOL, we derive a refined two-point model from the drift-reduced Braginskii equations that balances the parallel and perpendicular transport of plasma and heat, and takes into account the plasma-neutral interaction. The model estimates the electron temperature drop along a field line, from a region far from the limiter to the limiter plates. The refined two-point model is shown to be in very good agreement with the simulation results. Finally, we self-consistently simulate a diagnostic neutral gas puff, which is often used experimentally as a tool to learn about the turbulence properties in the tokamak periphery. In particular, we investigate the impact of neutral density fluctuations on the D-Î± light emission, finding that at a radial distance from the gas puff smaller than the neutral mean free path, neutral density fluctuations are anti-correlated with plasma density, electron temperature, and D-Î± fluctuations, while at distances from the gas puff larger than the neutral mean free path, a non-local shadowing effect influences the neutrals, and the D-Î± fluctuations are correlated with the neutral density fluctuations.