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Publication# Production of Chern-Simons bosons in decays of mesons

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*IOP Publishing Ltd, *2022

Article

Article

Résumé

We consider the effective interaction of quarks with a new GeV-scale vector particle that couples to electroweak gauge bosons by the so-called effective Chern-Simons (CS) interaction. We call this particle the CS boson. We construct effective Lagrangian of the CS boson interaction with quarks of two different flavors. This interaction is given by a divergent loop diagram, however, it turns out that the divergent part is equal to zero as a consequence of the CKM matrix unitarity in the SM. Therefore, we are able to predict effective interaction of the CS boson with quarks of different flavors without introducing new unknown parameters to the model, using only parameters of the initial effective Lagrangian. Our result shows that the effective interaction of the CS boson with down-type quarks is sufficiently stronger compared with up-type quarks. Based on our results, we give a prediction for the production of CS bosons in mesons decays. Branching fractions were obtained for the main reactions of the CS production in meson decays. The results obtained will be useful for searching for the long-lived GeV-scale CS boson in intensity frontier experiments.

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Particule matérielle

Le terme « particule matérielle » (material particle en anglais) désigne une petite portion d'un corps, de matière solide ou fluide, constituée d'un nombre suffisamment grand de particules élémentaire

Méson

Un méson est, en physique des particules, une particule composite (c’est-à-dire non élémentaire) composée d'un nombre pair de quarks et d'antiquarks.
Le terme « méson » vient du grec , meson, qui s

Quark

En physique des particules, un quark est une particule élémentaire et un constituant de la matière observable. Les quarks s'associent entre eux pour former des hadrons, particules composites, dont l

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Christophe Bauer, Greig Alan Cowan, Olivier Schneider, Pierre Vogel

This biennial Review summarizes much of particle physics. Using data from previous editions, plus 2658 new measurements from 644 papers, we list, evaluate, and average measured properties of gauge bosons, leptons, quarks, mesons, and baryons. We summarize searches for hypothetical particles such as Higgs bosons, heavy neutrinos, and supersymmetric particles. All the particle properties and search limits are listed in Summary Tables. We also give numerous tables, figures, formulae, and reviews of topics such as the Standard Model, particle detectors, probability, and statistics. Among the 112 reviews are many that are new or heavily revised including those on Heavy-Quark and Soft-Collinear Effective Theory, Neutrino Cross Section Measurements, Monte Carlo Event Generators, Lattice QCD, Heavy Quarkonium Spectroscopy, Top Quark, Dark Matter, V-cb & V-ub, Quantum Chromodynamics, High-Energy Collider Parameters, Astrophysical Constants, Cosmological Parameters, and Dark Matter. A booklet is available containing the Summary Tables and abbreviated versions of some of the other sections of this full Review. All tables, listings, and reviews (and errata) are also available on the Particle Data Group website: http://pdg.lbl.gov.

The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has been producing pp collisions at 7 and 8 TeV since 2010 and promises a new era of discoveries in particle physics. One of its experiments, the Large Hadron Collider beauty (LHCb) experiment, was constructed to study CP violation in the B meson system. In addition to B physics, new Physics beyond the Standard Model can also be searched for at this single-arm forward spectrometer. With the different sub-detectors and the high resolution of the tracking system, the LHCb detector has the ability to search for heavy, long-lived and charged particles, which are predicted by extensions of the Standard Model. One of these extensions, the minimal Gauge Mediated Supersymmetry Breaking (mGMSB), proposes such a particle, named stau (τ~) - the SUSY bosonic counterpart of the heavy lepton tau (τ). The theory proposes that the staus may be pair-produced in pp collisions or in the decays of heavier particles, and have only electromagnetic interactions with the atoms of the medium like the muons. Therefore, we expect that at the energy of the LHC these particles can be produced if they do exist and that we have a chance to discover them at LHCb, as well as at the other experiments of the LHC. This thesis is dedicated to the search for stau pairs produced in pp collisions at the centre-of-mass energies √s = 7 and 8 TeV in the LHCb detector. For this purpose, we generated the stau pairs with seven different particle masses ranging from 124 to 309 GeV/c2 and simulated their path through the LHCb detector, as well as their muon background from the decays Z0, γ∗ → μ+μ−. Based on the results from the simulation, a set of cuts are then defined to select the stau pairs. Some muon pairs at high energies will also pass the selection cuts. Thus, to separate the stau pairs from the muon pairs, the Neural Network technique has been used. A first Neural Network has been used to distinguish the stau tracks from the muon tracks using their signals left in the sub-detectors: the VELO silicon detector, the electromagnetic calorimeter, the hadron calorimeter and the RICH detectors. Then, two methods to select the stau pairs have been developed: the first one is based on the product of the two responses from the first Neural Network (NN1) for the two tracks, the second one employs a second Neural Network to separate the stau pairs from the muon pairs by using the above product of the two NN1 responses and the invariant mass of pair. Finally, a favourable region for the staus finding has been defined and the expected numbers of stau and muon pairs in this region have been evaluated. The training of the Neural Network has been achieved with the Monte Carlo variables, then the trained Neural Network has been used to classify the data. The data used in our work were collected by the LHCb experiment in 2011 and 2012 and correspond to integrated luminosities of 1 fb−1 at √s = 7 TeV and of 2 fb−1 at √s = 8 TeV. No significant excess of signal has been observed. Upper limits at 95% CL on the cross section for stau pair production in pp collisions at √s = 7 and 8 TeV have been computed by using the profile likelihood method, which is derived from the well known Feldman and Cousins method.

High-energy particle physics is going through a crucial moment of its history, one in which it can finally aspire to give a precise answer to some of the fundamental questions it has been conceived for. On the one side, the theoretical picture describing the elementary strong and electroweak interactions below the TeV scale, the Standard Model, has been well consolidated over the decades by the observation and the precise characterization of its constituents. On the other hand, the enormous technological potentialities nowadays available, and the skills accumulated in decades of collider experiments with increasingly high complexity, render for the first time plausible the possibility of addressing complicated and conceptually deep questions like the ones at hand. The best incarnation of this high level of sophistication is the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC), the most powerful experimental apparatus ever built, which is designed to shed light on the true nature of fundamental interactions at energies never attained before, and which has already started to open a new era in physics with the recent discovery of the longed-for Higgs boson, a true milestone for the human knowledge as well as one of the most important discoveries in the modern epoch. The knowledge that has been and is going to be reached in these crucial years would of course not be conceivable without a deep interplay between the theoretical and the experimental efforts. In particular, on the theoretical side, not only there are wide groups of researchers devoted to building possible extensions to the Standard Model, which draws the guidelines of current and future experiments, but also there is a vast community whose research is rather aimed at the precise predictions of all the physical observables that could be measured at colliders, and at the systematic improvement of the approximations that currently constrain such predictions. On top of representing the state-of-the-art of the human understanding of the properties that regulate elementary-particle interactions and of the formalisms that describe them, the developments of this line of research have an immediate and significant impact on experiments. Firstly, these detailed calculations are the very theoretical predictions against which experimental data are compared, so they are crucial in establishing the validity or not of the theories according to which they are performed. Secondly, the signals one wants to extract from data at modern colliders are so tiny and difficult to single out that the experimental searches themselves need be supplemented by a detailed work of theoretical modelling and simulation. In this respect, high-precision computations play an essential role in all analysis strategies devised by experimental collaborations, and in many aspects of the detector calibration. It is clear that, for theoretical computations to be useful in experimental analyses and simulations, the predictions they yield should be reliable for all possible configurations of the particles to be detected. Thus the key feature for the present theoretical collider physics is not particularly the computation of observables with high precision only in a limited region of the phase space, but the capability of combining (‘matching’) in a consistent way different approaches, each of which is reliable in a particular kinematic regime. With this perspective, matching techniques represent one of the most promising and successful theoretical frameworks currently available, and are considered as eminently valuable tools both on the theoretical and on the experimental sides. Matched computations are based on a perturbation-theory approach for the description of configurations in which the scattering products are well separated and/or highly energetic: in particular the precision currently attained for all but a few of the relevant processes within the Standard Model is the next-to-leading order (NLO) in powers of the strong quantum-chromodynamics (QCD) coupling constant αS; for the description of configurations in which the particles outgoing the collisions are close to each other and/or have low energy, it can be shown that the perturbation-theory expansion breaks down, and then a complementary method, like the parton shower Monte Carlo (PSMC), has instead to be employed. The task of matching is precisely that of giving a prediction that interpolates between the two approaches in a smooth and theoretically-consistent way. This thesis is focused on MC@NLO, a high-energy physics formalism capable of matching computations performed at the NLO in QCD to PSMC generators, in such a way as to retain the virtues of both approaches while discarding their mutual deficiencies. In particular, the thesis reports on the work successfully achieved in extending MC@NLO from its original numerical implementation, tailored on the HERWIG PSMC, to the other main PSMC programs currently employed by experimental collaborations, PYTHIA and Herwig++, confirming the advocated universality of the method. Differences in the various realizations are explained in detail both at the formal level and through the simulation of various Standard-Model reactions. Moreover we describe how the MC@NLO framework has been developed so as to render its implementation automatic with respect to the physics process one is about to simulate: beyond yielding an enormous increase in its potential for present and future collider phenomenology, and upgrading the standard of precision for high-energy computations to the NLO+PSMC level, this development allows for the first time the application of the MC@NLO formalism to a huge number of relevant and highly complicated reactions, through an implementation which is also easily usable by people well-outside the community of experts in QCD calculations. As example of this new version, called aMC@NLO, recent results are presented for complex scattering processes, involving four or five final-state particles. Finally, possible extensions of the framework to theories beyond the Standard Model, like the supersymmetric version of QCD, are briefly introduced.