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Concept# Reductive group

Summary

In mathematics, a reductive group is a type of linear algebraic group over a field. One definition is that a connected linear algebraic group G over a perfect field is reductive if it has a representation that has a finite kernel and is a direct sum of irreducible representations. Reductive groups include some of the most important groups in mathematics, such as the general linear group GL(n) of invertible matrices, the special orthogonal group SO(n), and the symplectic group Sp(2n). Simple algebraic groups and (more generally) semisimple algebraic groups are reductive.
Claude Chevalley showed that the classification of reductive groups is the same over any algebraically closed field. In particular, the simple algebraic groups are classified by Dynkin diagrams, as in the theory of compact Lie groups or complex semisimple Lie algebras. Reductive groups over an arbitrary field are harder to classify, but for many fields such as the real numbers R or a number field, the classification

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We classify the spherical birational sheets in a complex simple simply-connected algebraic group. We use the classification to show that, when G is a connected reductive complex algebraic group with simply-connected derived subgroup, two conjugacy classes O-1, O-2 of G, with O-1 spherical, lie in the same birational sheet, up to a shift by a central element of G, if and only if the coordinate rings of O-1 and O-2 are isomorphic as G-modules. As a consequence, we prove a conjecture of Losev for the spherical subvariety of the Lie algebra of G. (C) 2021 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

We study (connected) reductive subgroups G of a reductive algebraic group H, where G contains a regular unipotent element of H. The main result states that G cannot lie in a proper parabolic subgroup of H. This result is new even in the classical case H = SL(n, F), the special linear group over an algebraically closed field, where a regular unipotent element is one whose Jordan normal form consists of a single block. In previous work, Saxl and Seitz (1997) determined the maximal closed positive-dimensional (not necessarily connected) subgroups of simple algebraic groups containing regular unipotent elements. Combining their work with our main result, we classify all reductive subgroups of a simple algebraic group H which contain a regular unipotent element.

2013