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Concept# Electric machine

Summary

In electrical engineering, electric machine is a general term for machines using electromagnetic forces, such as electric motors, electric generators, and others. They are electromechanical energy converters: an electric motor converts electricity to mechanical power while an electric generator converts mechanical power to electricity. The moving parts in a machine can be rotating (rotating machines) or linear (linear machines). Besides motors and generators, a third category often included is transformers, which although they do not have any moving parts are also energy converters, changing the voltage level of an alternating current.
Electric machines, in the form of synchronous and induction generators, produce about 95% of all electric power on Earth (as of early 2020s), and in the form of electric motors consume approximately 60% of all electric power produced. Electric machines were developed beginning in the mid 19th century and since that time have been a ubiquitous compone

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EE-361: Electrical machines (for EL)

L'objectif de ce cours est d'acquérir les connaissances de base liées aux machines électriques (conversion électromécanique). Le cours porte sur le circuit magnétique, le transformateur, les machines synchrones, asynchrones, à courant continu et les moteurs pas à pas.

EE-382: Electrical machines (for ME)

L'objectif de ce cours est d'acquérir les connaissances de base liées aux machines électriques (conversion électromécanique). Le cours porte sur le circuit magnétique, le transformateur, les machines synchrones, asynchrones, à courant continu et les moteurs pas à pas.

ME-251: Thermodynamics and energetics I

Introduction aux principes de la thermodynamique, propriétés thermodynamiques de la matière et à leur calcul. Les étudiants maîtriseront les concepts de conservation (chaleur, masse, quantité de mouvement) et appliqueront ces concepts au cycles thermodynamiques et systèmes de conversion d'énergie.

For the simulation of electrical power systems (adjustable speed drives, wind farms, complete grids, etc.) the Kirchhoff's model is used. Each of the components of this model (transmission line, circuit breaker, electrical machines, etc.) is represented by an equivalent circuit. These equivalent circuit models are unable to take precisely into account the non-linearities of the electrical machines. These non-linearities (eddy currents, magnetic saturation of the materials, skin effect) are however accurately predicted by the finite element method. The goal of this thesis is to add a finite element model of an electrical machine, the hydro generator, to a grid solver. The nature of the link between the grid solver and the finite element model is first investigated. Then, a finite element program used solely to the simulation of the hydro generator and to its link with a grid solver is designed. The features required for such a program are mandated by the physic of the device modelled: dealing with non-linear materials, eddy currents and taking the movement of the rotor into account. Furthermore, it is possible to use the symmetries of the studied device to reduce both the calculating time and the necessary memory. All these features were validated individually, before being used together in the simulation of a hydro generator.

Related lectures (41)

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Using a finite element (FE) model of the electrical machine in a grid solver enables us to take the machine nonlinearities into account with great precision in the simulation of a complete system. Three methods are usually used for linking the grid and FE solver: direct coupling, lumped components, and current or voltage output approach. In this article, the coupling is treated as the resolution of a nonlinear equation system that is solved with the Newton method. The proposed linking scheme has been used to simulate a two phase short circuit on a hydrogenerator. Its results have been validated by running the same simulation with commercially available software.

2011Electrical machines consumed the amount of 9’346 TWh in 2019, corresponding to more than 40% of the total global electricity consumption. With the growing demand for automation of production lines and electrification of the transport industry, this value is likely to increase in the next years. Improving the performance of electrical machines will and already plays a key role in better managing our society’s energy consumption. In order to achieve this, in this work I develop the premises of a new Topology Optimization (TO) framework based on the method of moving morphable components (MMC). It allows to automatically design the best shapes of the motor’s components. Initially developed for structural mechanics, TO directly investigate the ideal distribution of material in space. This novel method often results in organic shapes. The goal of this project is to adapt an already existing TO framework from [9] adapted and written in Python, to design the winding of a linear motor.

2022