Concept# CPT symmetry

Summary

Charge, parity, and time reversal symmetry is a fundamental symmetry of physical laws under the simultaneous transformations of charge conjugation (C), parity transformation (P), and time reversal (T). CPT is the only combination of C, P, and T that is observed to be an exact symmetry of nature at the fundamental level. The CPT theorem says that CPT symmetry holds for all physical phenomena, or more precisely, that any Lorentz invariant local quantum field theory with a Hermitian Hamiltonian must have CPT symmetry.
History
The CPT theorem appeared for the first time, implicitly, in the work of Julian Schwinger in 1951 to prove the connection between spin and statistics. In 1954, Gerhart Lüders and Wolfgang Pauli derived more explicit proofs, so this theorem is sometimes known as the Lüders–Pauli theorem. At about the same time, and independently, this theorem was also proved by John Stewart Bell. These proofs are based on the principle of Lorentz invariance and the principle

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Presentation of particle properties, their symmetries and interactions.
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The LHCb experiment is one of four main experiments to be setup at IP8 point of the proton-proton Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, Geneva. The data taking is scheduled to start end 2007. The LHCb detector is a forward single-arm spectrometer conceived to study CP violation and rare phenomena in the b-quark sector with very high precision. LHCb should provide a profound understanding of flavour physics in the framework of Standard Model (SM), so that the SM will be over-constrained, hopefully, it will exhibit some inconsistencies which may reveal a sign of New Physics beyond the SM. The physics studies being considered by the LHCb collaboration offer the possibility of furthering in the SM description of CP violation. The SM provides the theoretical framework for the violation of the CP symmetry in neutral B mesons as well as in neutral K mesons. The neutral Bs0 - Bs0 system stays at a privileged position in the quest for CP violation evidences. The Bs0 - Bs0 mixing phase, φs, has never been measured. This mixing phase has its origins in the interference between the decay and the mixing of those neutral mesons. b → ccs quark-level transitions decaying to CP eigenstates, may directly probe this electroweak phase by performing a time-dependent measurement of mixing-induced CP violation. Among those quark level transitions, we have the golden-plated channel to perform such a measurement that is Bs0 → J/ψφ and that requires an angular analysis to disentangle its CP eigenstates components. On the other hand, b → ccs transitions to pure CP eigenstates provide another probe to the φs not requiring such angular studies. In this dissertation we will be consider the Bs0 → J/ψ(μ+μ-) η' (π+π-η(γγ)) decays which are b → ccs transitions to pure CP even eigenstates. The reconstruction and selection of those decays will be presented here using full Monte Carlo simulations. An annual event yield of ∼ 2000 is assured with a background-over-signal level close to unity. The mass and proper time resolution will be also presented and some methods searching to improve those performances. In the last chapter of the dissertation, we will also present a study of the statistical sensitivity of Bs0 → J/ψ(μ+μ-) η' (π+π-η(γγ)) to the Bs0 - Bs0 mixing parameters, using a fast parameterised Monte Carlo simulation. Those simulations take into account in a realistic manner the outputs from the full Monte Carlo simulations. Specifically, we will be simulate the background-over-signal levels, the time dependent acceptance efficiency and tagging and reconstruction performances for that decay mode. It will also take as inputs the event-by-event proper time errors obtained from the full MC. The likelihood fit performed to extract the physics parameters requires a flavour-specific control sample, Bs0 → Ds π, which allows for the extraction of the Bs0 - Bs0 mixing frequency, ΔMs. The sensitivity achieved by our channel decay will be then combined to other b → ccs quark level transitions to pure CP eigenstates and finally also to the Bs0 → J/ψφ decay to admixture of CP eigenstates. The sensitivity obtained from the pure CP modes is σ(φs) = 0.056 rad whereas if we combine all decay channels into a single sensitivity measurement we achieve σ(φs) = 0.021 rad. The contribution from the pure CP modes is non-negligible, ∼ 14%, so that it is expected that these channels will certainly help in the measurement of φs.

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