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Concept# Logical connective

Summary

In logic, a logical connective (also called a logical operator, sentential connective, or sentential operator) is a logical constant. They can be used to connect logical formulas. For instance in the syntax of propositional logic, the binary connective \lor can be used to join the two atomic formulas P and Q, rendering the complex formula P \lor Q .
Common connectives include negation, disjunction, conjunction, implication, and equivalence. In standard systems of classical logic, these connectives are interpreted as truth functions, though they receive a variety of alternative interpretations in nonclassical logics. Their classical interpretations are similar to the meanings of natural language expressions such as English "not", "or", "and", and "if", but not identical. Discrepancies between natural language connectives and those of classical logic have motivated nonclassical approaches to natural language meaning as well as a

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We propose a new approach for normalization and simplification of logical formulas. Our approach is based on algorithms for lattice-like structures. Specifically, we present two efficient algorithms for computing a normal form and deciding the word problem for two subtheories of Boolean algebra, giving a sound procedure for propositional logical equivalence that is incomplete in general but complete with respect to a subset of Boolean algebra axioms. We first show a new algorithm to produce a normal form for expressions in the theory of ortholattices (OL) in time O(n^2). We also consider an algorithm, recently presented but never evaluated in practice, producing a normal form for a slightly weaker theory, orthocomplemented bisemilattices (OCBSL), in time O(n log(n)^2). For both algorithms, we present an implementation and show efficiency in two domains. First, we evaluate the algorithms on large propositional expressions, specifically combinatorial circuits from a benchmark suite, as well as on large random formulas. Second, we implement and evaluate the algorithms in the Stainless verifier, a tool for verifying the correctness of Scala programs. We used these algorithms as a basis for a new formula simplifier, which is applied before valid verification conditions are saved into a persistent cache. The results show that normalization substantially increases cache hit ratio in large benchmarks.

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