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Concept# Nonparametric statistics

Summary

Nonparametric statistics is the type of statistics that is not restricted by assumptions concerning the nature of the population from which a sample is drawn. This is opposed to parametric statistics, for which a problem is restricted a priori by assumptions concerning the specific distribution of the population (such as the normal distribution) and parameters (such the mean or variance). Nonparametric statistics is based on either not assuming a particular distribution or having a distribution specified but with the distribution's parameters not specified in advance (though a parameter may be generated by the data, such as the median). Nonparametric statistics can be used for descriptive statistics or statistical inference. Nonparametric tests are often used when the assumptions of parametric tests are evidently violated.
The term "nonparametric statistics" has been defined imprecisely in the following two ways, among others:
Non-parametric methods are widely used for studying populations that have a ranked order (such as movie reviews receiving one to four "stars"). The use of non-parametric methods may be necessary when data have a ranking but no clear numerical interpretation, such as when assessing preferences. In terms of levels of measurement, non-parametric methods result in ordinal data.
As non-parametric methods make fewer assumptions, their applicability is much more general than the corresponding parametric methods. In particular, they may be applied in situations where less is known about the application in question. Also, due to the reliance on fewer assumptions, non-parametric methods are more robust.
Another justification for the use of non-parametric methods is simplicity. In certain cases, even when the use of parametric methods is justified, non-parametric methods may be easier to use. Due both to this simplicity and to their greater robustness, non-parametric methods are considered by some statisticians as being less susceptible to improper use and misunderstanding.

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Student's t-test

A t-test is a type of statistical analysis used to compare the averages of two groups and determine if the differences between them are more likely to arise from random chance. It is any statistical hypothesis test in which the test statistic follows a Student's t-distribution under the null hypothesis. It is most commonly applied when the test statistic would follow a normal distribution if the value of a scaling term in the test statistic were known (typically, the scaling term is unknown and therefore a nuisance parameter).

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