Concept

Powder diffraction

Summary
Powder diffraction is a scientific technique using X-ray, neutron, or electron diffraction on powder or microcrystalline samples for structural characterization of materials. An instrument dedicated to performing such powder measurements is called a powder diffractometer. Powder diffraction stands in contrast to single crystal diffraction techniques, which work best with a single, well-ordered crystal. Explanation Diffraction grating The most common type of powder diffraction is with x-rays, the focus of this article although some aspects of neutron powder diffraction are mentioned. (Powder electron diffraction is more complex due to dynamical diffraction and is not discussed further herein.) Typical diffractometers use electromagnetic radiation (waves) with known wavelength and frequency, which is determined by their source. The source is often x-rays, and neutrons are also common sources, with their frequency determined by their de Broglie wavelength. When these waves
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