Concept

Spherical coordinate system

Summary
In mathematics, a spherical coordinate system is a coordinate system for three-dimensional space where the position of a point is specified by three numbers: the radial distance of that point from a fixed origin; its polar angle measured from a fixed polar axis or zenith direction; and the azimuthal angle of its orthogonal projection on a reference plane that passes through the origin and is orthogonal to the fixed axis, measured from another fixed reference direction on that plane. When radius is fixed, the two angular coordinates make a coordinate system on the sphere sometimes called spherical polar coordinates. The radial distance is also called the radius or radial coordinate. The polar angle may be called colatitude, zenith angle, normal angle, or inclination angle. The polar angle is often replaced by the elevation angle measured from the reference plane towards the positive Z axis; the depression angle is the negative of the elevation angle. The use of symbols and the o
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