Concept

Cortisol

Summary
Cortisol is a steroid hormone, in the glucocorticoid class of hormones. When used as a medication, it is known as hydrocortisone. It is produced in many animals, mainly by the zona fasciculata of the adrenal cortex in the adrenal gland. It is produced in other tissues in lower quantities. It is released with a diurnal cycle and its release is increased in response to stress and low blood-glucose concentration. It functions to increase blood sugar through gluconeogenesis, to suppress the immune system, and to aid in the metabolism of fat, protein, and carbohydrates. It also decreases bone formation. Many of these functions are carried out by cortisol binding to glucocorticoid or mineralocorticoid receptors inside the cell, which then bind to DNA to impact gene expression. Health effects Metabolic response Metabolism of glucose Cortisol plays a crucial role in regulating glucose metabolism and promotes gluconeogenesis (glucose synthesis) and glycogenes
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