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Concept# Estimation

Summary

Estimation (or estimating) is the process of finding an estimate or approximation, which is a value that is usable for some purpose even if input data may be incomplete, uncertain, or unstable. The value is nonetheless usable because it is derived from the best information available. Typically, estimation involves "using the value of a statistic derived from a sample to estimate the value of a corresponding population parameter". The sample provides information that can be projected, through various formal or informal processes, to determine a range most likely to describe the missing information. An estimate that turns out to be incorrect will be an overestimate if the estimate exceeds the actual result and an underestimate if the estimate falls short of the actual result.
How estimation is done
Estimation is often done by sampling, which is counting a small number of examples something, and projecting that number onto a larger population. An example

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Powerful mathematical tools have been developed for trading in stocks and bonds, but other markets that are equally important for the globalized world have to some extent been neglected. We decided to study the shipping market as an new area of development in mathematical finance. The market in shipping derivatives (FFA and FOSVA) has only been developed after 2000 and now exhibits impressive growth. Financial actors have entered the field, but it is still largely undiscovered by institutional investors. The first part of the work was to identify the characteristics of the market in shipping, i.e. the segmentation and the volatility. Because the shipping business is old-fashioned, even the leading actors on the world stage (ship owners and banks) are using macro-economic models to forecast the rates. If the macro-economic models are logical and make sense, they fail to predict. For example, the factor port congestion has been much cited during the last few years, but it is clearly very difficult to control and is simply an indicator of traffic. From our own experience it appears that most ship owners are in fact market driven and rather bad at anticipating trends. Due to their ability to capture large moves, we chose to consider Lévy processes for the underlying price process. Compared with the macro-economic approach, the main advantage is the uniform and systematic structure this imposed on the models. We get in each case a favorable result for our technology and a gain in forecasting accuracy of around 10% depending on the maturity. The global distribution is more effectively modelled and the tails of the distribution are particularly well represented. This model can be used to forecast the market but also to evaluate the risk, for example, by computing the VaR. An important limitation is the non-robustness in the estimation of the Lévy processes. The use of robust estimators reinforces the information obtained from the observed data. Because maximum likelihood estimation is not easy to compute with complex processes, we only consider some very general robust score functions to manage the technical problems. Two new class of robust estimators are suggested. These are based on the work of F. Hampel ([29]) and P. Huber ([30]) using influence functions. The main idea is to bound the maximum likelihood score function. By doing this a bias is created in the parameters estimation, which can be corrected by using a modification of the following type and as proposed by F. Hampel. The procedure for finding a robust estimating equation is thus decomposed into two consecutive steps : Subtract the bias correction and then Bound the score function. In the case of complex Lévy processes, the bias correction is difficult to compute and generally unknown. We have developed a pragmatic solution by inverting the Hampel's procedure. Bound the score function and then Correct for the bias. The price is a loss of the theoretical properties of our estimators, besides the procedure converges to maximum likelihood estimate. A second solution to for achieving robust estimation is presented. It considers the limiting case when the upper and lower bounds tend to zero and leads to B-robust estimators. Because of the complexity of the Lévy distributions, this leads to identification problems.

Marcello Farina, Giancarlo Ferrari Trecate

In this paper, we propose a novel distributed fault detection method to monitor the state of a linear system, partitioned into interconnected subsystems. The approach hinges on the definition of a partition-based distributed Luenberger estimator, based on the local model of the subsystems and that takes into account the dynamic coupling terms between the subsystems. The proposed methodology computes – in a distributed way – a bound on the variance of a properly defined residual signal, considering the uncertainty related to the state estimates performed by the neighboring subsystems. This bound allows the computation of suitable local thresholds with guaranteed maximum false-alarms rate. The implementation of the proposed estimation and fault detection method is scalable, allowing Plug & Play operations and the possibility to disconnect the faulty subsystem after fault detection. Theoretical conditions guaranteeing the convergence of the estimates and of the bounds are provided. Simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

2016This thesis is a contribution to financial statistics. One of the principal concerns of investors is the evaluation of portfolio risk. The notion of risk is vague, but in finance it is always linked to possible losses. In this thesis, we present some measures allowing the valuation of risk with the help of Bayesian methods. An exploratory analysis of data is presented to describe the sampling properties of financial time series. This analysis allows us to understand the origins of the daily returns studied in this thesis. Moreover, a discussion of different models is presented. These models make strong assumptions on investor behaviour, which are not always satisfied. This exploratory analysis shows some differences between the behaviour anticipated under equilibrium models, and that of real data. The Bayesian approach has been chosen because it allows one to incorporate all the variability, in particular that associated with model choice. The models studied in this thesis allow one to take heteroskedasticity into account, as well as particular shapes of the tails of returns. ARCH type models and models based on extreme value theory are studied. One original aspect of this thesis is its use of Bayesian analysis to detect change points in financial time series. We suppose that a market has two phases, and that it switches from a state to the other at random. Another new contribution is a model integrating heteroskedasticity and time dependence of extreme values, by superposition of the model proposed by Bortot and Coles (2003) and a GARCH process. This thesis uses simulation intensively for the estimation of risk measures. The drawback of simulation is the amount of time needed to obtain accurate estimates. However, simulation allows one to produce results when direct calculation is not feasible. For example, simulation allows one to compute risk estimates for time horizons greater than one day. The methods presented in this thesis are illustrated on simulated data, and on real data from European and American markets. This thesis involved the construction of a library containing C and S code to perform risk analysis using GARCH and extreme value theory models. The results show that model uncertainty can be incorporated, and that risk measures for time horizons greater than one can be obtained by simulation. The methods presented in this thesis have a natural representation involving conditioning. Thus, they permit the computation of both conditional and unconditional risk estimates. Three methods are described: the GARCH method; the two-state GARCH method; and the HBC method. Unconditional risk estimation using the GARCH method is satisfactory on data which seem stationary, but not reliable on data which are non-stationary, such as data with change points. The two-state GARCH model does a little better, but gives very satisfactory results when the risk is estimated conditionally on time. The HBC method does not give satisfactory results.