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Concept# Linear differential equation

Summary

In mathematics, a linear differential equation is a differential equation that is defined by a linear polynomial in the unknown function and its derivatives, that is an equation of the form
a_0(x)y + a_1(x)y' + a_2(x)y'' \cdots + a_n(x)y^{(n)} = b(x)
where a0(x), ..., an(x) and b(x) are arbitrary differentiable functions that do not need to be linear, and y′, ..., y(n) are the successive derivatives of an unknown function y of the variable x.
Such an equation is an ordinary differential equation (ODE). A linear differential equation may also be a linear partial differential equation (PDE), if the unknown function depends on several variables, and the derivatives that appear in the equation are partial derivatives.
A linear differential equation or a system of linear equations such that the associated homogeneous equations have constant coefficients may be solved by quadrature, which means that the

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Ordinary differential equation

In mathematics, an ordinary differential equation (ODE) is a differential equation (DE) dependent on only a single independent variable. As with other DE, its unknown(s) consists of one (or more) f

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In mathematics, a complex number is an element of a number system that extends the real numbers with a specific element denoted i, called the imaginary unit and satisfying the equation

Partial differential equation

In mathematics, a partial differential equation (PDE) is an equation which computes a function between various partial derivatives of a multivariable function.
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Étudier les concepts fondamentaux d'analyse, et le calcul différentiel et intégral des fonctions réelles de plusieurs
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Étudier les concepts fondamentaux d'analyse et le calcul différentiel et intégral des fonctions réelles de plusieurs
variables.

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We study the system of linear partial differential equations given by dw + a Lambda w = f, on open subsets of R-n, together with the algebraic equation da Lambda u = beta, where a is a given 1-form, f is a given (k + 1)-form, beta is a given k + 2-form, w and u are unknown k-forms. We show that if rank[da] >= 2(k+1) those equations have at most one solution, if rank[da] equivalent to 2m >= 2(k + 2) they are equivalent with beta = df + a Lambda f and if rank[da] equivalent to 2m >= 2(n - k) the first equation always admits a solution. Moreover, the differential equation is closely linked to the Poincare lemma. Nevertheless, as soon as a is nonexact, the addition of the term a Lambda w drastically changes the problem.

2018This article proposes a dynamical system modeling approach for the analysis of longitudinal data of self-regulated homeostatic systems experiencing multiple excitations. It focuses on the evolution of a signal (e.g., heart rate) before, during, and after excitations taking the system out of its equilibrium (e.g., physical effort during cardiac stress testing). Such approach can be applied to a broad range of outcomes such as physiological processes in medicine and psychosocial processes in social sciences, and it allows to extract simple characteristics of the signal studied. The model is based on a first order linear differential equation with constant coefficients defined by three main parameters corresponding to the initial equilibrium value, the dynamic characteristic time, and the reaction to the excitation. Assuming the presence of interindividual variability (random effects) on these three parameters, we propose a two-step procedure to estimate them. We then compare the results of this analysis to several other estimation procedures in a simulation study that clarifies under which conditions parameters are accurately estimated. Finally, applications of this model are illustrated using cardiology data recorded during effort tests.

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A space-time adaptive algorithm to solve the motion of a rigid disk in an incompressible Newtonian fluid is presented, which allows collision or quasi-collision processes to be computed with high accuracy. In particular, we recover the theoretical result proven in [M. Hillairet, Lack of collision between solid bodies in a 2D incompressible viscous flow, Comm. Partial Differential Equations 32 (2007), no. 7-9, 1345-1371], that the disk will never touch the boundary of the domain in finite time. Anisotropic, continuous piecewise linear finite elements are used for the space discretization, the Euler scheme for the time discretization. The adaptive criteria are based on a posteriori error estimates for simpler problems.