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Concept# Complex multiplication

Summary

In mathematics, complex multiplication (CM) is the theory of elliptic curves E that have an endomorphism ring larger than the integers. Put another way, it contains the theory of elliptic functions with extra symmetries, such as are visible when the period lattice is the Gaussian integer lattice or Eisenstein integer lattice.
It has an aspect belonging to the theory of special functions, because such elliptic functions, or abelian functions of several complex variables, are then 'very special' functions satisfying extra identities and taking explicitly calculable special values at particular points. It has also turned out to be a central theme in algebraic number theory, allowing some features of the theory of cyclotomic fields to be carried over to wider areas of application. David Hilbert is said to have remarked that the theory of complex multiplication of elliptic curves was not only the most beautiful part of mathematics but of all science.
There is also the higher-dimensional

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The Uniformization Theorem due to Koebe and Poincaré implies that every compact Riemann surface of genus greater or equal to 2 can be endowed with a metric of constant curvature – 1. On the other hand, a compact Riemann surface is a complex algebraic curve and is therefore described by a polynomial equation with complex coefficients. The uniformization problem is then to link explicitly these two descriptions. In [BS05b], Peter Buser and Robert Silhol develop a new uniformization method for compact Riemann surfaces of genus two. Given such a surface S, the method describes a polynomial equation of an algebraic curve conformally equivalent to S. However, in this method appear a complex number τ BS and a function f BS which is holomorphic on the unit disk, both being characterized by some functional equations. This means that τ BS, f BS are given implicitly. P. Buser and R. Silhol then approximate them numerically by a complex number τ and a polynomial p using the approximation method developped in [BS05a]. In cases where the equation of the algebraic curve is known, they notice that these approximations are very good. In this thesis we prove a convergence theorem for the approximation method of P. Buser and R. Silhol, and we propose an adaptation of their method that allows to solve some of the numerical problems to which it is prone. Moreover, we generalize this uniformization method to hyperelliptic Riemann surfaces of genus greater than 2, and we give some examples of numerical uniformization in genus 3.

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In 1999, Smart has shown how to solve in linear time ECDLP for elliptic curves of trace 1 defined over a prime finite field Fp, the so-called anomalous elliptic curves. In this article, we show how to construct such cryptographically weak curves for primes p of industrial length, using complex multiplication theory. Â© 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

2005We establish several results towards the two-variable main conjecture of Iwasawa theory for elliptic curves without complex multiplication over imaginary quadratic fields, namely (i) the existence of an appropriate p-adic L-function, building on works of Hida and Perrin-Riou, (ii) the basic structure theory of the dual Selmer group, following works of Coates, Hachimori-Venjakob, et al.. and (iii) the implications of dihedral or anticyclotomic main conjectures with basechange. The result of (i) is deduced from the construction of Hida and Perrin-Riou, which in particular is seen to give a bounded distribution. The result of (ii) allows us to deduce a corank formula for the p-primary part of the Tate-Shafarevich group of an elliptic curve in the Z(p)(2)-extension of an imaginary quadratic field. Finally, (iii) allows us to deduce a criterion for one divisibility of the two-variable main conjecture in terms of specializations to cyclotomic characters, following a suggestion of Greenberg, as well as a refinement via basechange. (C) 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

2012